EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES     $683,000,000

 
The FY 1999 Budget Request for Education and Human Resources is $683.0 million, an increase of $50.50 million, or 8.0 percent, from the FY 1998 Current Plan of $632.50 million.
 

(Millions of Dollars)
 

The Education and Human Resources (EHR) Activity defines and implements an investment strategy for education and human resource development that advances the vision and goals of NSFís Strategic Plan and documents accountability for education and training activities NSF-wide under the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA). EHR programs are unique within the federal enterprise, representing an inter-connected and comprehensive set of activities that encompass every educational level and type of learning (e.g., formal, informal) in all regions of the country. It also plays a major role in the Foundationís commitment to develop our human resources for the scientific and technological workforce. Its component programs are subject to continuous improvements based on program reviews, evaluation, dissemination of best practices, and evolving knowledge bases.

The strength of EHRís science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) programming resides in its ability to marshal combined expertise of the research and education communities. Its products include cutting-edge research on teaching and learning to inform education practice; comprehensive, standards-based instructional materials that are effective in increasing student achievement and providing essential workplace skills; strategies for developing content knowledge and teaching skills of the instructional workforce; and research, development and implementation of next generation learning technologies. In FY 1999, significant budget growth is invested in collaborative efforts with the Department of Education (DoED), supporting initiatives in K-8 mathematics and research on K-12 education and training technologies. Employing NSFís merit review process and building on EHRís PreK-12 programming, the two efforts culminate nearly two years of interagency planning.

Systemic reform of science and mathematics education, a strategy replicated by other federal and educational organizations, is the cornerstone of EHRís PreK-12 programming. Based on the belief that all students can learn and achieve in science and mathematics at much higher levels than presently attained, systemic projects treat whole systems and build needed educational capacity at state, urban, rural, and district levels. Over the years, NSF and participating localities have identified elements critical to successful reform, such as aligning of governance, practice, and resources; adopting strategies informed by local needs; simultaneously implementing standards-based curriculum, instruction, and assessment; and building meaningful partnerships that bring needed intellectual and financial resources to school systems.

 The expansion of EHRís systemic agenda has increased the breadth and depth of its impact on science and mathematics education in the United States:

If U.S. research superiority is to be maintained and its workforce remain capable of meeting technological demands of the future, undergraduate and graduate education must also undergo reform. Strong undergraduate education is needed to build a K-12 instructional workforce capable of delivering standards-based education; to provide a well-trained science and technology workforce; and to develop a scientifically literate citizenry. In FY 1999, EHR realigns its undergraduate programming to focus on institution-wide implementation of high quality instructional materials and educational practices in classrooms and laboratories. Emphasis is placed on innovations that apply state-of-the-art research on learning, instruction, and educational technologies; ensure access to cutting-edge science; and respond to the varying cultural, academic backgrounds, and learning styles of students. In the graduate arena, EHR continues to increase support for the NSF-wide Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program -- a research-based, interdisciplinary effort that provides Ph.D. students with the content knowledge and professional skills for meeting career demands of the future.
 
SUPPORT BY EDUCATION LEVEL
(Millions of Dollars)
The main elements of the program portfolio under the EHR Activity are: In FY 1999, additional resources and emerging opportunities enable strengthened efforts in the following areas:  

PreK-12 ACTIVITIES

The FY 1999 Budget Request provides $414.85 million for PreK-12 activities, an increase of $40.54 million. Priority is given to efforts that respond to the K-8 mathematics initiative and the research on education and training technologies initiative, conducted in partnership with DoED.

In FY 1999, a $25.0 million increment across several EHR programs discussed below will be invested in the K-8 mathematics initiative. Building on its strong program base, EHR will focus efforts on implementing standards-based mathematics curricula; developing and implementing mathematics assessments; strengthening preparation of pre- and in-service teachers; and strengthening relevant components of state, urban, and district-wide projects. EHR also will expand networks of its systemic projects to include non-supported states and urban areas that have a strong desire to work with NSF in implementing standards-based K-8 mathematics reform and assessment systems.

An additional $15.0 million increment will be invested in the NSF-wide initiative on research on education and training technologies. Funding will aim to extend the effective application of computer, networking, and other technologies to K-12 education. Program activities across EHR will respond directly to recommendations made by the Presidentís Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology in its "Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States." Under this initiative, NSF and DoED will work collaboratively to initiate a broad research effort on education and training technologies.

PreK-12 programs are operated within the Educational System Reform; Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education; Human Resource Development; Undergraduate Education; and the Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivities.

Systemic Reform of PreK-12. In FY 1999, support for systemic reform totals $117.05 million for activities under the Statewide Systemic (SSI), Urban Systemic (USI), and Rural Systemic Initiatives (RSI) programs. Strengthening of all programs will be effected through implementation of learning technologies, standards-based instructional materials and assessments, best practices that lead to system reform, and networks of participating localities.

Activities Supporting PreK-12 Systemic Reform. Other PreK-12 Activities.  
UNDERGRADUATE ACTIVITIES

The FY 1999 Budget Request provides undergraduate support of $122.68 million, an increase of $6.98 million, for programs addressing institution-wide implementation of curriculum and laboratory improvements and training for high-performance technology industries. This support is primarily in the Undergraduate Education, Human Resource Development, and Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivities. Undergraduate funding increases are focused on:

 
GRADUATE ACTIVITIES

The FY 1999 Budget Request provides graduate support of $80.99 million, an increase of $2.20 million. In FY 1999, NSF continues phase-in of a rise in the cost-of-education allowance, defraying more of the actual tuition costs of graduate research fellows and trainees at higher education institutions. This increase will result in reductions in the number of graduate students supported as it is implemented over the FY 1998-2000 period. In FY 1999, efforts will continue to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of graduate education and to better integrate research and education. Support is primarily located within the Graduate Education, Human Resource Development, and Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivities. Programs include:

PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE
 
The FY 1999 Budget Request of $11.26 million represents an increase of $780,000. The increase is primarily focused on expanding applications of technology that promote scientific literacy under the Research, Evaluation, and Communication Subactivity. Informal Science Education (ISE) under the Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education Subactivity will broaden the scope of recent efforts to disseminate findings from NSF-supported research.
 

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

The FY 1998 Budget Request for Research remains unchanged at $53.22 million. Supported activities include:

EFFORTS ACROSS EDUCATION LEVELS

Educating for the Future (EFF). EFF includes a range of programs supporting innovative approaches to meeting the challenge of educating students for the 21st century. In FY 1999, EHR increases funding under the NSF-wide EFF theme by $55.30 million. The increment represents EHR investments in:

Some funds within EHR base programs will be redirected to enable increases in EFF.

Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence (KDI). In FY 1999, EHR increases support for the NSF-wide KDI theme by $4.50 million. KDI-related activities are supported in programs across EHR to translate the results of research on education and technology into effective practice.

Life in the Earthís Environment (LEE). In FY 1999, EHR will provide an increment of $2.0 million for LEE to support development of middle school and undergraduate earth science curricula.
 

Program Evaluation and Accountability. In FY 1999, evaluation funding under the Research, Evaluation, and Communication (REC) Subactivity decreases by $1.0 million, to $12.27 million. This decrease is made possible as the full cycle of program evaluation and prototype development and data systems and Web-based data collection mechanisms near completion. In FY 1999, EHR will continue to develop data systems that fully respond to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) reporting requirements; engage in full-scale evaluations of several major on-going programs; and conduct implementation research to identify best practices. To ensure accountability and continued strengthening of programs, EHR continues two major activities initiated in 1997: (1) "Program Effectiveness Reviews" of large-scale projects and components of program portfolios to standardize assessment of their performance and (2) development of student performance assessments to measure achievement gains under new, inquiry-based curricula.

Research on Education, Policy, and Practice (REPP). In FY 1999, support for education research activities in the REC Subactivity increases by $3.38 million, to $28.78 million. REPP, newly configured in FY 1998, continues to build an understanding of learning, pedagogical processes, and organization and policy support that will advance teaching and learning in science and mathematics. In FY 1999, $3.0 million of that increment is invested in the childrenís research initiative.

Scientific and Technological Literacy. The NSF Strategic Plan focuses agency efforts on promoting scientific and technological literacy, enabling citizens to make informed decisions on matters that affect their lives and the nationís productivity. EHR supports activities to attract children and young adults into scientific careers and enhance life-long learning of science for those who enter non-science professions. Activities include: informal science -- outside-the-classroom -- education for children and their families; research in teaching and learning; efforts focused on women and girls and persons with disabilities, undergraduate course and curriculum development for non-science majors; and dissemination activities that enable all Americans to appreciate the scientific discovery and education process.