David Reznick + Michael Ghedotti DEB-0416085 + 0415633 Abstract
The Evolution of Placentas in the Poeciliid Fishes: An Empirical Study of the Evolution of Complexity
The placenta is a complex organ that is a composite of many adaptations that must be well integrated for proper function. David Reznick and Michael Ghedotti will study the evolution of the placenta in the fish family Poeciliidae. They will develop a "family tree", based on DNA sequence and morphology, to determine if the placenta evolved independently on different branches and to define groups of species that do or do not have the placenta. Experiments on 30 species of those fish that are closely related and have different forms of maternal provisioning will test the predictions of a recent theory for the evolution of the placenta. Working together, the biologists will provide insights to refine the theory, while theoreticians will provide insights to suggest new lines of experimental inquiry.
In the Origin of Species, Darwin included a chapter entitled "Difficulties on Theory", considering the most serious challenges to the theory of evolution by natural selection. One was the origin of complex organs: it seemed improbable that evolution could integrate many traits at once. He proposed that complexity could evolve by small steps if each represented an adaptation. These fish provide an opportunity to test Darwin's proposition. The research will also offer multidisciplinary training for students, be relevant to several fields of biology, and present a case study in evolution.
PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF THIS RESEARCH
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Olendorf, R. F. Helen Rodd, David Punzalan, Anne E. Houde, Carla Hurt, David N. Reznick & Kimberly A. Hughes. "Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations," Nature, v.441, 2006.
Pires, M. N., K. McBride*, D. N. Reznick. "Interpopulation Variation in Life-History Traits of Poeciliopsis prolifica: Implications for the Study of Placental Evolution," J. Exp. Zoology, v.307A, 2007.
Ghalambor, C. K., J. K. McKay, S. P. Carroll, and D. N. Reznick. "Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for adaptation to new environments," Functional Ecology, v.21, 2007.
D. Reznick, M. Bryant. "Comparative Long-Term Mark-Recapture Studies of Guppies (Poecilia reticulata): Differences Among High and Low Predation Localities in Growth and Survival," Annals Zoologica Fennici, v.44, 2007.
Bryant, MJ; Reznick, D. "Comparative studies of senescence in natural populations of guppies," AMERICAN NATURALIST, v.163, 2004, p. 55.
Hughes, KA; Rodd, FH; Reznick, DN. "Genetic and environmental effects on secondary sex traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)," JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, v.18, 2005, p. 35.
Lawton, BR; Sevigny, L; Obergfell, C; Reznick, D; O'Neill, RJ; O'Neill, MJ. "Allelic expression of IGF2 in live-bearing, matrotrophic fishes," DEVELOPMENT GENES AND EVOLUTION, v.215, 2005, p. 207.
Reznick, DN; Ghalambor, CK. "Can commercial fishing cause evolution? Answers from guppies (Poecilia reticulata)," CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES AND AQUATIC SCIENCES, v.62, 2005, p. 791.
Reznick, DN; Ghalambor, CK. "Selection in nature: Experimental manipulations of natural populations," INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, v.45, 2005, p. 456.
Walker, JA; Ghalambor, CK; Griset, OL; McKenney, D; Reznick, DN. "Do faster starts increase the probability of evading predators?," FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, v.19, 2005, p. 808.
Hendry, AP; Kelly, ML; Kinnison, MT; Reznick, DN. "Parallel evolution of the sexes? Effects of predation and habitat features on the size and shape of wild guppies," JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, v.19, 2006, p. 741.
Olendorf, R; Rodd, FH; Punzalan, D; Houde, AE; Hurt, C; Reznick, DN; Hughes, KA. "Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations," NATURE, v.441, 2006, p. 633.
Reznick, D; Schultz, E; Morey, S; Roff, D. "On the virtue of being the first born: the influence of date of birth on fitness in the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis," OIKOS, v.114, 2006, p. 135.
Pires, MN; McBride, KE; Reznick, DN. "Interpopulation variation in life-history traits of Poeciliopsis prolifica: Implications for the study of placental evolution," JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART A-ECOLOGICAL GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY, v.307A, 2007, p. 113.
Zuniga-Vega, JJ; Reznick, DN; Johnson, JB. "Habitat predicts reproductive superfetation and body shape in the livebearing fish Poeciliopsis turrubarensis," OIKOS, v.116, 2007, p. 995.
Carroll, SP; Hendry, AP; Reznick, DN; Fox, CW. "Evolution on ecological time-scales," FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, v.21, 2007, p. 387.
Ghalambor, CK; McKay, JK; Carroll, SP; Reznick, DN. "Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for contemporary adaptation in new environments," FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, v.21, 2007, p. 394.
Reznick, D; Bryant, M. "Comparative long-term mark-recapture studies of guppies (Poecilia reticulata): differences among high and low predation localities in growth and survival," ANNALES ZOOLOGICI FENNICI, v.44, 2007, p. 152.
Pires, MN; Mcbride, KE; Reznick, DN. "Interpopulation variation in life-history traits of Poeciliopsis prolifica: implications for the study of placental evolution (vol 307A, pg 121, 2007)," JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART A-ECOLOGICAL GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY, v.307A, 2007, p. 370.
Reznick, D; Hrbek, T; Caura, S; De Greef, J; Roff, D. "Life history of Xenodexia ctenolepis: implications for life history evolution in the family Poeciliidae," BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, v.92, 2007, p. 77.
O'Neill, MJ; Lawton, BR; Mateos, M; Carone, DM; Ferreri, GC; Hrbek, T; Meredith, RW; Reznick, DN; O'Neill, RJ. "Ancient and continuing Darwinian selection on insulin-like growth factor II in placental fishes," PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, v.104, 2007, p. 12404.
Reznick, D; Bryant, M; Holmes, D. "The evolution of senescence and post-reproductive lifespan in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)," PLOS BIOLOGY, v.4, 2006, p. 136.
Reznick, D; Meredith, R; Collette, BB. "Independent evolution of complex life history adaptations in two families of fishes, live-bearing halfbeaks (zenarchopteridae, beloniformes) and poeciliidae (cyprinodontiformes)," EVOLUTION, v.61, 2007, p. 2570.
Reznick, DN; Ghalambor, CK; Crooks, K. "Experimental studies of evolution in guppies: a model for understanding the evolutionary consequences of predator removal in natural communities," MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, v.17, 2008, p. 97.
Arendt, J; Reznick, D. "Convergence and parallelism reconsidered: what have we learned about the genetics of adaptation?," TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, v.23, 2008, p. 26.
Banet, AI; Reznick, DN. "Do placental species abort offspring? Testing an assumption of the Trexler-DeAngelis model," FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, v.22, 2008, p. 323.
Arendt, J; Reznick, D. "Moving beyond phylogenetic assumptions about evolutionary convergence: response to Leander," TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, v.23, 2008, p. 483.
Gordon, SP; Reznick, DN; Kinnison, MT; Bryant, MJ; Weese, DJ; Rasanen, K; Millar, NP; Hendry, AP. "Adaptive Changes in Life History and Survival following a New Guppy Introduction," AMERICAN NATURALIST, v.174, 2009, p. 34.
Banet, AI; Au, AG; Reznick, DN. "Testing an assumption of a model for the evolution of placentas," INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY, v.49, 2009, p. E9.
Pollux, BJA; Pires, MN; Banet, AI; Reznick, DN. "Evolution of Placentas in the Fish Family Poeciliidae: An Empirical Study of Macroevolution," ANNUAL REVIEW OF ECOLOGY EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS, v.40, 2009, p. 271.