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Award Abstract #0746970

CAREER: Women in the Math and Sciences: Counteracting the Impact of Negative Group Stereotypes on Performance

NSF Org: DRL
Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings (DRL)
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Initial Amendment Date: July 10, 2008
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Latest Amendment Date: May 14, 2012
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Award Number: 0746970
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Award Instrument: Continuing grant
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Program Manager: Jolene K. Jesse
DRL Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings (DRL)
EHR Directorate for Education & Human Resources
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Start Date: July 1, 2008
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End Date: June 30, 2014 (Estimated)
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Awarded Amount to Date: $831,882.00
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Investigator(s): Sian Beilock beilock@uchicago.edu (Principal Investigator)
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Sponsor: University of Chicago
5801 South Ellis Avenue
Chicago, IL 60637-5418 (773)702-8669
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NSF Program(s): REAL
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Program Reference Code(s): 1045, 1187, 7218, 9177, SMET
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Program Element Code(s): 7625

ABSTRACT

Stereotype threat occurs when awareness of a negative group stereotype in a particular domain reduces the quality of performance exhibited by group members. The current work (a) examines how stereotype threat undermines women?s math performance and expression of math proficiency in education situations and (b) employs laboratory and education-based interventions to alleviate the deleterious impact of negative group stereotypes. Only by understanding how stereotype threat hurts performance can training regimens and performance strategies be designed to ameliorate its impact. The current studies build on earlier work suggesting that stereotype threat affects performance on difficult academic tasks (e.g., math) by inducing situation-related worries that consume working memory (WM). The first set of studies in the present project investigate why math performance changes when WM is impaired, specifically examining how problem solving strategies are altered when WM is limited. The second set of studies attempt to prevent WM limitations to begin with by reducing ST-related worries and altering views of the ST situation. The work draws on literatures exploring how individuals regulate unwanted emotions (e.g., fear/disgust) and tests how these same emotion regulation strategies can be successfully applied to ST.


PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF THIS RESEARCH

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Rydell, McConnell, & Beilock. "Multiple Social Identities and Stereotype Threat: Imbalance, Accessibility, and Working Memory," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v.96, 2009, p. 9.

Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, L. A., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. C.. "Female teachers math anxiety affects girls math achievement.," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, v.107, 2010, p. 1860.

DeCaro, MS; Rotar, KE; Kendra, MS; Beilock, SL. "Diagnosing and alleviating the impact of performance pressure on mathematical problem solving," QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, v.63, 2010, p. 1619.   

Beilock, SL; Gunderson, EA; Ramirez, G; Levine, SC. "Reply to Plante et al.: Girls' math achievement is related to their female teachers' math anxiety," PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, v.107, 2010, p. E80.   

Ramirez, G., & Beilock, S. L.. "Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.," Science, v.331, 2011, p. 211.

Lyons, IM; Beilock, SL. "Beyond quantity: Individual differences in working memory and the ordinal understanding of numerical symbols," COGNITION, v.113, 2009, p. 189.   

Mattarella-Micke, A; Mateo, J; Kozak, MN; Foster, K; Beilock, SL. "Choke or Thrive? The Relation Between Salivary Cortisol and Math Performance Depends on Individual Differences in Working Memory and Math-Anxiety," EMOTION, v.11, 2011, p. 1000.   

Ramirez, G; Beilock, SL. "Writing About Testing Worries Boosts Exam Performance in the Classroom," SCIENCE, v.331, 2011, p. 211.   

Beilock, SL; Ramirez, G. "ON THE INTERPLAY OF EMOTION AND COGNITIVE CONTROL: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENHANCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT," PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION: COGNITION IN EDUCATION, v.55, 2011, p. 137. 

Beilock, SL; Ramirez, G. "Practical Implications of Test Anxiety Tools Response," SCIENCE, v.332, 2011, p. 792. 


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BOOKS/ONE TIME PROCEEDING

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. DeCaro, M. S. & Beilock, S. L.. "The benefits and perils of attentional control.", 07/01/2008-06/30/2009, , M. Csikszentmihalyi and B. Bruya (Eds.)."Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.", "MIT press".

DeCaro, M. S. & Beilock, S. L.. "The benefits and perils of attentional control.", 07/01/2009-06/30/2010, , M. Csikszentmihalyi and B. Bruya (Eds.)."Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.", "MIT press".

Schmader, T., & Beilock, S. L. (in press).. "Mechanisms: An integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat.", 07/01/2009-06/30/2010, , T. Schmader & M. Inzlicht (Eds.)"Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application.", "Oxford University Press.".

Mattarella-Micke, A., & Beilock, S. L.. "Individual differences in working memory: Implications for learning and performance.", 07/01/2009-06/30/2010, , N.M. Seel (Ed.)"Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.", "Springer".

DeCaro, M. S. & Beilock, S. L.. "The benefits and perils of attentional control.", 07/01/2010-06/30/2011, , M. Csikszentmihalyi and B. Bruya (Eds.)."Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.", "MIT press".

Schmader, T., & Beilock, S. L. (in press).. "Mechanisms: An integration of processes that underlie stereotype threat.", 07/01/2010-06/30/2011, , T. Schmader & M. Inzlicht (Eds.)"Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application.", "Oxford University Press.".

Mattarella-Micke, A., & Beilock, S. L.. "Individual differences in working memory: Implications for learning and performance.", 07/01/2010-06/30/2011, , N.M. Seel (Ed.)"Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.", "Springer".

Beilock, S. L. & Ramirez, G.. "On the interplay between emotion and cognitive control: Implications for enhancing academic achievement.", 07/01/2010-06/30/2011, , In J. Mestre & B. Ross (Eds.)"The Psychology of Learning and Motivation.",  2011, "Elsevier.".

Beilock, S. L.. "Choke: What the Secrets of the Brain Reveal about Getting It Right When You Have To.", 07/01/2010-06/30/2011,  2010, "Simon & Schuster: Free Press. http://www.sianbeilock.com/".

DeCaro, M. S. & Beilock, S. L.. "The benefits and perils of attentional control.", 07/01/2011-06/30/2012, , M. Csikszentmihalyi and B. Bruya (Eds.)."Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action.", "MIT press".


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