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Award Abstract #0829978

NEESR-SG: Performance-Based Design of Squat Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

NSF Org: CMMI
Div Of Civil, Mechanical, & Manufact Inn
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Initial Amendment Date: August 19, 2008
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Latest Amendment Date: August 19, 2008
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Award Number: 0829978
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Award Instrument: Standard Grant
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Program Manager: Joy Pauschke
CMMI Div Of Civil, Mechanical, & Manufact Inn
ENG Directorate For Engineering
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Start Date: October 1, 2008
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End Date: September 30, 2013 (Estimated)
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Awarded Amount to Date: $1,000,000.00
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Investigator(s): Andrew Whittaker awhittak@buffalo.edu (Principal Investigator)
Abraham Lynn (Co-Principal Investigator)
Bozidar Stojadinovic (Co-Principal Investigator)
Laura Lowes (Co-Principal Investigator)
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Sponsor: SUNY at Buffalo
402 Crofts Hall
Buffalo, NY 14260-7016 (716)645-2634
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NSF Program(s): NEES RESEARCH
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Program Reference Code(s): 036E, 043E, 1057, 1576, CVIS
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Program Element Code(s): 7396

ABSTRACT

This award is an outcome of the NSF 08-519 program solicitation George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Research (NEESR) competition and includes the University at Buffalo-SUNY (lead institution), University of California, Berkeley (subaward), University of Washington (subaward), California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (subaward), and the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (subaward). This project will utilize the NEES equipment sites at the University at Buffalo and the University of California, Berkeley. Structural walls are widely used as seismic lateral-force-resisting components in buildings and nuclear facilities. Since most building structures are low-rise with columns spaced at approximately 30 feet on center and walls cast between columns, most structural walls are squat with aspect ratios of 1.0 or less. Conventional walls are constructed of reinforced concrete (RC). Currently, the design of these walls is based on demand/capacity equations addressing shear strength and prescriptive detailing requirements, which were developed for tall (high aspect ratio) walls, to ensure ductility. However, analysis of squat wall test data shows that current design equations result in a significant bias and scatter in the ratios of estimated to measured strength. As such, squat walls stand out among RC structural elements because of the large uncertainties in characterizing their behavior. Such bias and uncertainties are unacceptable for modern performance assessment methodologies for which unbiased estimates of strength and stiffness are needed as a function of deformation and load history. The goal of this project is to fill the substantial gaps in knowledge noted above by developing curated numerical and visual experimental data on the seismic response of large-scale squat reinforced concrete wall specimens, validated tools for simulation of the seismic response of squat reinforced concrete walls, code-oriented design equations and improved prescriptive details to achieve specified levels of performance, fragility data suitable for immediate use in performance-based seismic assessment and design of conventional and nuclear structures, and teaching tools to effectively explain the resistance and failure mechanisms of squat walls. The unique experimental capabilities of the NEES equipment sites at Buffalo and Berkeley will be used to execute the large-scale cyclic and hybrid-simulation experiments that must be performed to develop the datasets required to prepare robust numerical simulation, design guidance, and loss modeling tools. Other researchers will be able to use the curated experimental results to further advance understanding with alternate theories and numerical models. Physical experiments followed by numerical simulations will be used to develop guidance for structural engineers and loss/risk modelers on how squat reinforced concrete walls in buildings and nuclear structures perform during earthquakes. This project will advance fundamental science and knowledge in engineering with substantial intellectual benefits to the structural engineering and loss modeling communities. Both disciplines will contribute to and benefit from the integrated physical and numerical simulation studies. The project will also train Ph.D. students, bring in undergraduate students from a teaching university, engage underrepresented students, impact building code development and performance-based seismic design, and outreach to a broad spectrum of end-users in the United States and abroad via web-accessed media, a Virtual Annual Meeting, and a Practice Committee composed of expert design professionals. Data from this project will be made available through the NEES data repository (http://www.nees.org)


PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF THIS RESEARCH

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Farhidzadeh, A., Dehghan Niri, E., Salamone, S., Luna, B.N. and Whittaker, A.S.. "Monitoring Crack Propagation in Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls by Acoustic Emission," ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, v.139, 2013.

Farhidzadeh, A., Dehghan-Niri, E., Moustafa, A., Salvatore, S. and Whittaker, A. S.. "Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Fractal Analysis of Residual Crack Patterns," Experimental Mechanics, v.53, 2013.

Whyte, C. A. and Stojadinovic, B.. "Use of a High-Precision Digital Displacement Encoder for Hybrid Simulation of Seismic Response of Stiff Specimens," Experimental Techniques, 2014. 

Del Carpio, M, Whittaker, A. S., and Gulec C.K.. "n evaluation of predictive equations for the peak shear strength of squat reinforced concrete walls," Journal of Earthquake Engineering, v.16, 2012, p. 159.

Epackachi, S., Nguyen, N.H., Kurt, E.G., Whittaker, A.S. and Varma, A.H.. "In-plane Seismic Behavior of Rectangular Steel-plate Composite (SC) Wall Piers," Structural Engineering (ASCE), 2014.

Gulec, CK; Whittaker, AS; Stojadinovic, B. "Peak Shear Strength of Squat Reinforced Concrete Walls with Boundary Barbells or Flanges," ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL, v.106, 2009, p. 368. 

Farhidzadeh, A., Salamone, S., Luna, B. N., and Whittaker A.S.. "Acoustic Emission Monitoring of a Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall by b-value Based Outlier Analysis," Structural Health Monitoring, v.12, 2013.

Gulec, C. K. and Whittaker, A. S.. "Empirical equations for the peak shear strength of low aspect ratio reinforced concrete walls," ACI Structural Journal, v.108, 2011.

Rivera, J. P., Luna, B. N., and Whittaker, A.S.. "Development Length of Unconfined Conventional and High-strength Reinforcing Bars," ACI Structural Journal, v.110, 2013.

Whyte, C. A. and Stojadinovic, B.. "Effect of Ground Motion Sequence on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls in Hybrid Simulation," ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, v.140, 2014.


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BOOKS/ONE TIME PROCEEDING

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Rocks, et al.. "Performance-based design of low aspect
ratio reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2010-09/30/2011,  2011, "NEES-MCEER Annual Meeting, Buffalo, NY,
June".

Rocks, et al.. "Performance-based design of low aspect
ratio reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2010-09/30/2011,  2011, "NEES-MCEER Annual Meeting, Buffalo, NY,
June".

Rocks, et al.. "Performance-based design of low aspect
ratio reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2010-09/30/2011,  2011, "NEES-MCEER Annual Meeting, Buffalo, NY,
June".

Rocks, et al.. "Performance-based design of low aspect
ratio reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2010-09/30/2011,  2011, "NEES-MCEER Annual Meeting, Buffalo, NY,
June".

Rocks, et al.. "Performance-based design of low aspect
ratio reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2011-09/30/2012,  2011, "NEES-MCEER Annual Meeting, Buffalo, NY,
June".

Whyte, C., et al.. "Hybrid simulation of the seismic response
of squat reinforced concrete shear walls", 10/01/2010-09/30/2011,  2011, "PEER Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA,
September".

Whyte, C., et al.. "Hybrid simulation of the seismic response
of squat reinforced concrete shear walls", 10/01/2011-09/30/2012,  2011, "PEER Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA,
September".

Whyte, C. and Stojadinovic, B.. "Hybrid simulation of the seismic response
of squat reinforced concrete walls", 10/01/2011-09/30/2012,  2011, "PEER Annual Meeting, Berkeley,
September 2011".

Birley, A., Pugh, j., Lowes, L. N.,
Lehman, D. E.. "Investigation of the seismic response pf
planar concrete walls", 10/01/2008-09/30/2009,  2009, "Proceedings, 2009 SEAOC Convention,
San Diego, CA".

Birley, A., Pugh, j., Lowes, L. N.,
Lehman, D. E.. "Investigation of the seismic response of
planar concrete walls", 10/01/2009-09/30/2010,  2009, "Proceedings, 2009 SEAOC Convention,
San Diego, CA".


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