Christian Fritsen PLR Division Of Polar Programs
GEO Directorate For Geosciences
July 1, 2011
June 30, 2015 (Estimated)
Awarded Amount to Date:
Walker Smith firstname.lastname@example.org (Principal Investigator)
College of William & Mary Virginia Institute of Marine Science
P.O. Box 1346
Gloucester Point, VA
ANTARCTIC ORGANISMS & ECOSYST
Program Reference Code(s):
Program Element Code(s):
The Ross Sea continental shelf is one of the most productive areas in the Southern Ocean, and may comprise a significant, but unaccounted for, oceanic CO2 sink, largely driven by phytoplankton production. The processes that control the magnitude of primary production in this region are not well understood, but data suggest that iron limitation is a factor. Field observations and model simulations indicate four potential sources of dissolved iron to surface waters of the Ross Sea: (1) circumpolar deep water intruding from the shelf edge; (2) sediments on shallow banks and nearshore areas; (3) melting sea ice around the perimeter of the polynya; and (4) glacial meltwater from the Ross Ice Shelf. The principal investigators hypothesize that hydrodynamic transport via mesoscale currents, fronts, and eddies facilitate the supply of dissolved iron from these four sources to the surface waters of the Ross Sea polynya. These hypotheses will be tested through a combination of in situ observations and numerical modeling, complemented by satellite remote sensing. In situ observations will be obtained during a month-long cruise in the austral summer. The field data will be incorporated into model simulations, which allow quantification of the relative contributions of the various hypothesized iron supply mechanisms, and assessment of their impact on primary production. The research will provide new insights and a mechanistic understanding of the complex oceanographic phenomena that regulate iron supply, primary production, and biogeochemical cycling. The research will thus form the basis for predictions about how this system may change in a warming climate. The broader impacts include training of graduate and undergraduate students, international collaboration, and partnership with several ongoing outreach programs that address scientific research in the Southern Ocean. The research also will contribute to the goals of the international research programs ICED (Integrated Climate and Ecosystem Dynamics) and GEOTRACES (Biogeochemical cycling and trace elements in the marine environment).
PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF THIS RESEARCH
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Mosby, A. and W.O. Smith, Jr.. "Phytoplankton growth rates in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.," Aquatic Mirobial Ecology, v.74, 2014, p. 157.
Smith, W.O., Jr. and K. Donaldson.. "Photosynthesis-irradiance responses in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: a meta-analysis.," Biogeosciences, v.12, 2015, p. 1.
Smith, W.O. Jr. and R.M. Jones.. "Vertical mixing, critical depths, and phytoplankton growth in the Ross Sea.," ICES Journal of Marine Science, 2014, p. 10.1093/i.
Walker O. Smith, Jr., David G. Ainley, Kevin R. Arrigo and Michael S. Dinniman. "THE OCEANOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY OF THE ROSS SEA," Annual Reviews of Marine Science, v.6, 2014, p. 120-146.
Smith, W.O. Jr., M.S. Dinniman, E.E. Hoffman, and J. Klinck.. "Modeled impacts of changing winds and temperatures on the oceanography of the Ross Sea in the 21st century.," Geophysical Research Letters, v.41, 2014, p. doi:10.10.