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Computing, communications, and storage resources worldwide continued to grow at exponential rates in 2004. Unfortunately, computer security incidents continued to show parallel growth patterns. As the use of the Internet for commercial purposes continues to grow, so do the opportunities for its abuse by criminals, for example through theft of sensitive information via "phishing" attacks.

Today's problems call for research of many kinds, both to understand better the complex system of systems on which society depends and to lay the foundations for a world in which today's attacks can perhaps be ruled out by design. In its 2004 awards, NSF's Cyber Trust program seeks to advance relevant research on many fronts, to educate students in how to design and build more trustworthy systems, and to inform the public about safe ways to use the systems on which they depend. This note summarizes 35 Cyber Trust awards, 5 related FY04 ITR awards, and 10 related CAREER awards.

Most research projects have several dimensions, such as the expected time to yield results, where the project lies on scales ranging from empirical to theoretical work, from foundational to applied, and across domains and disciplines of study. Any attempt to group them into categories will consequently succeed better for some than for others. The framework in which the projects are described below is intended to help readers relate projects to each other and to provide an overall picture of the program, but these categories were not provided by the principal investigators. The project descriptions below are based on the proposals and the award abstracts.

The categories used here are as follows:

A. Security of next generation OS and networking issues
B. Forensic and law enforcement foundations
C. Human computer interface for security functions
D. Cross-disciplinary approaches
E. Theoretical foundations and mechanisms for privacy, security, trust
F. Composable systems and policies
G. Presenting security concepts to the average user
H. Improved ability to certify system security properties
I. Improved ability to analyze security designs, build systems correctly
J. More effective system monitoring, anomaly detection, attack recognition and defense
K. Integrating hardware and software for security

Other categorizations of the awards are provided at the end of this document.

A. Research on Next Generation OS and Networking Issues

Operating Systems:

1. OS Support for Application Installation, Execution, and Management in an Untrustworthy World. Steven Gribble and Henry Levy, University of Washington. Unfortunately, modern operating systems do little to help users address the security and vulnerability challenges of the modern networked environment. For example, it is difficult to determine what programs are installed or running on a system, or what code is responsible for generating visible activity (such as network traffic, file system activity, or windowing activity). It is even more difficult for users to install or remove code from a system cleanly or completely. The proposed research seeks to address these shortcomings of modern operating systems by reconsidering the OS architecture in light of the modern world. In particular, a goal is to provide new program installation, execution, and management abstractions within the OS.
NSF Award #0430477

2. Securing Untrusted Software with Interposition. David Mazieres, NYU, Frans Kaashoek and Robert Morris, MIT, Edward Kohler, UCLA. Current operating systems have vulnerabilities precisely because it is so difficult to write secure programs for them. A new operating system design, Asbestos, is proposed that allows one to secure applications without fully understanding them. The fundamental Asbestos security primitive is interposition. One or more programs can easily interpose upon, monitor, and control any and all interactions between an application and the rest of the system. Interposers correspond to security policies. They can block unwanted accesses or even virtualize parts of the system, so that legacy applications that demand inappropriately high privilege can run in a less-privileged setting. Interposers themselves need have no more privilege than the applications on which they interpose. Network firewalls make a good analogy: they secure network interactions between applications they don't fully understand by controlling their communication. Asbestos interposers are like per-application firewalls. Asbestos aims to make secure programming easier and more accessible.
NSF Award #0430425

3. SecureCore for Trustworthy Commodity Computing and Communications. Ruby Lee and Mung Chiang, Princeton, Cynthia Irvine, Naval Postgraduate School, Terry Benzel, USC-ISI. The SecureCore project will design and develop a secure integrated core for trustworthy operation of mobile computing devices consisting of: a security-aware general-purpose processor, a small security kernel and a small set of essential secure communications protocols. The research will use a clean slate approach to investigate a minimal set of architectural features required for such a secure core, for use in platforms exemplified by pocket devices (e.g., contact-less smart card), secure embedded systems (e.g., computer in a heart monitor), and mobile computing devices (e.g., handheld web-enabled computer). The goal is to achieve security without compromising performance, size, cost or energy consumption.
NSF Award #0430487


1. Privacy and Surveillance In Wireless Systems. Dirk Grunwald and Greg Grudic, University of Colorado, Boulder. This research will investigate how privacy may be provided at the physical layer in future wireless networks. A dialectic study of location privacy in wireless networks will be conducted -- a "good cop" vs. "bad cop" exploration of the technical limits and abilities for surveillance in common data networking. Two paths of research will be pursued: mechanisms for wireless privacy will be investigated, and those techniques will be subjected to the statistical extrapolations made possible by machine learning. From these measurements, the research will address both location privacy -- the hiding of information in a location-aware wireless system, and surveillance -- the observation of actors in wireless networks.
NSF Award #0430593

2. Trustworthy and Resilient Location Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks. Peng Ning, North Carolina State U., Wenliang Du, Syracuse U. This research will investigate a suite of techniques to prevent, detect, or survive malicious attacks against location discovery in sensor networks. The effort will study key management schemes suitable for authenticating beacon messages, explore techniques to make existing location discovery schemes more resilient, seek beaconless location discovery that uses deployment knowledge instead of beacon nodes, and investigate methods to integrate techniques cost-effectively for sensor network applications. In this way, sensor network applications can be developed with inherent, built-in security.
NSF Award #0430223

3. CAREER: Secure and Resilient Sensor Network Communication Infrastructure. Adrian Perrig, Carnegie Mellon U. This research studies the problem of secure and attack-resilient communication in sensor networks. The result of this research is an easy-to-use secure communication infrastructure. This secure communication infrastructure will enable sensor network designers to construct secure and attack-resilient networks, without requiring security experts. The resulting sensor network will provide data secrecy (provide robustness against eavesdropping) and data authenticity (prevent message injection), provide resistance against malicious resource consumption attacks, and provide resistance against physical sensor node capture and compromise.
NSF Award #0347807

4. Controlling Internet Denial of Service with Capabilities. David Wetherall and Thomas Anderson, University of Washington. This research addresses Internet denial of service problems at the level of internet architecture. If successful, this change can act as a solid foundation for higher-level network services; patches cannot. The key question is whether it is possible to design a scalable, heterogeneous, and open network that resists Denial of Service attacks. The approach targets the root cause of flooding attacks: that any node is able to send packets to any destination at any time. In the proposed architecture, destinations (and paths) are given control over the network resources used to reach them. Capabilities are the mechanism that is used to affect this control. Senders must first obtain “permission to send” from the destination; a receiver provides tokens, or limited use capabilities, to those senders whose traffic it agrees to accept. The senders then include these tokens in packets. This enables verification points distributed around the network to check that traffic is certified as legitimate by both endpoints, and to cleanly discard unauthorized traffic.
NSF Award #0430304

5. Real-Time Internet Routing Anomaly Detection and Mitigation. Zhuoqing Mao, University of Michigan. This research will address the detection and prevention of security problems of the Internet routing infrastructure. A distributed routing Intrusion Detection System (Router IDS) will be developed for performing real-time Internet routing anomaly detection and mitigation to improve the robustness of the routing infrastructure. Router IDS detects routing anomalies by combining publicly available routing data from multiple vantage points to check consistency and identify deviations from past routing behavior. It disambiguates uncertainties by correlating routing data with both passively collected traffic data as well as actively triggered light-weight probe packets targeting destinations relevant to the routing updates observed. Proactive measures are undertaken to mitigate anomalies by preventing changes to the local router's forwarding table from being changed or polluted. Routing policies are modified or the suspicious routing updates are filtered to avoid going through the incorrect route. If there are alternate routes to a destination, a suspicious routing update can be excluded as part of the route selection process as a safety precaution. If there is no access to the router, overlay routing is used to bypass the router using the incorrect route.
NSF Award #0430204

6. (ITR) Large-Scale Network Simulation for Security and Survivability Evaluation. George Riley (Ga Tech). The Internet routing infrastructure and domain name infrastructure are huge and highly dynamic systems. This research is focused on the detailed study and analysis of the behavior of these systems, using newly developed high-performance simulation tools capable of modeling networks consisting of hundreds of thousands or millions of network elements. A large part of the effort will be focused on survivability analysis for these critical Internet infrastructure services, in the presence of either deliberate or accidental failures or mis-configurations. If this work succeeds, the Internet will become more resilient to failures and more dependable for end users.
NSF Award #0427700


1. Design and Implementation of Hydra: A Platform for Survivable and Secure Storage Systems. Lihao Xu, Washington University. Supporting the availability, survivability, persistence, confidentiality and integrity of information is becoming more and more crucial. This calls for secure and reliable data storage systems that distribute information over networks, enabling users to store and access critical data in a continuously available and highly trustable fashion. The goal of this project is to design and implement a general platform for data storage systems to meet such objectives. What makes this project novel and exciting is the use of MDS array codes designed and developed in previous related projects, and our novel use of an MDS code to address both error detection/correction and encryption.
NSF Award #0430224

B. Forensic and Law Enforcement Foundations

1. ForNet: Design and Implementation of a Network Forensics System. Nasir Memon, Hervé Brönnimann, Douglas Salane, Adina Schwartz, and Joel Wein, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York. This project addresses the lack of effective forensic tools for network level investigation of malicious activity on the Internet and other IP networks. Future networks are expected to have forensic support integrated into them to deter cybercrimes. The main goal of this research is to develop tools and techniques to realize this vision and build a proof of concept prototype network forensics system. The resulting Forensic Network will support more thorough investigations; provide evidence of probable cause for law enforcement to obtain warrants; and in some cases supply proof for use in civil and criminal trials. Synopsized network traffic will be captured to answer the following kinds of questions:

  • Where are the zombies that participated in a DDOS attack? When were they planted? What system or network planted them? Where are additional zombies that have not yet been activated?
  • Was the defendant's computer hacked? When? What system did the hacker come from? Did the hacker commit the crime the defendant is accused of? Was a zombie planted? When?
  • Has a specific confidential file been sent through or from our intranet? When? Where did it go? Did the request to send the document come over the intranet? From where?

NSF Award #0430444

2. Blind Detection of Digital Photograph Tampering. Shih-Fu Chang, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Columbia University. The ability to ensure information integrity throughout the information distribution chain is one of the core requirements for building a trustworthy cyber environment. This research will develop a completely blind and passive detection system, i.e., no extra encryption, signature extraction, or information embedding processes are needed. Given a digital image in question at the point of checking, the goal is to detect content tampering operations by analyzing the natural signal/scene characteristics in the image without incurring any other overhead. Recent advances in signal processing, computer graphics, and statistical machine learning have brought about great potential for breakthroughs in the above mentioned direction. This project initiates a collaborative effort combining cross-disciplinary expertise in signal processing and computer graphics. A multi-level system for detecting image forgeries at both the low-level signal and high-level scene is proposed. At the signal level, image authenticity is defined as the signal quality of original images, which comes directly from imaging devices such as cameras and scanners. While at the scene level, image authenticity is defined as the quality of a consistent 3-D scene. The signal processing approach involves innovative use of higher-order signal statistics, image decomposition, and image structural analysis to identify the image-splicing effect, which is a direct evidence of photomontaging. The computer graphics approach includes novel techniques of 3D geometry estimation, illumination field recovery, and scene reconstruction to detect inconsistency at the scene level like shadows, shading, and geometry. The signal level and the scene level detection form a powerful combination - research combining both directions presents a great opportunity for innovation but it has not been explored to date. The goal is to discover fundamental possibilities and limits of the new paradigm.
NSF Award #0430258

3. Center for Internet Epidemiology and Defenses. Stefan Savage, Geoffrey M. Voelker, George Varghese, Univ. California San Diego, and Vern Paxson, Nick Weaver, International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley CA. Understanding the scope and emergent behavior of Internet-scale worms seen in the wild constitutes an emerging new science termed Internet epidemiology. This center-scale activity award includes a significant focus on large-scale network forensics including analysis of victims and attribution of attacks. Key tools in this pursuit are the Center's construction and operation of a distributed network telescope of unprecedented scale that in turn feeds a honeyfarm collection of vulnerable "honeypot" servers whose infection serves to indicate the presence of an Internet-scale worm.
NSF Award #0433668

4. Using generative models to evaluate and strengthen biometrically enhanced systems. Fabian Monrose, Johns Hopkins University, Daniel Lopresti, Lehigh University, Michael Reiter, Carnegie Mellon University. This research will investigate the difficulty of synthesizing voice or handwriting characteristics used in generating passwords hardened with biometric data. The import for forensics is that it will help establish the effort an attacker might incur in attempting to masquerade as a different user.
NSF Award #0430338

C. Human-Computer-Interfaces for security functions

1. Exploring Risk Perception And Ultimate Trust in Online Environments: Viewpoints of the Visually-Impaired. Juline Mills, Purdue.
This research addresses system interfaces for establishing trust from the perspective of a visually impaired user. The study will specifically seek to: 1) identify the salient factors important in developing visually-impaired consumer trust in online businesses; 2) identify the interpersonal trust factors and the corresponding levels of interpersonal trust critical to the adaptation or continued use of the Internet by visually-impaired consumers; 3) explore variations in trust antecedents based on the demographic characteristics (age, gender, and ethnic and cultural background) of visually-impaired consumers; 4) develop a trust typology model for visually-impaired consumers; 5) develop educational programs to aid non-users and users with increasing trust online.
NSF Award #0430406

2. (ITR) Panoply: Enabling Safe Ubiquitous Computing Environments. Leonard Kleinrock, Gerald Popek, Peter Reiher, UCLA. This research will investigate a new concept of access control intended to be more understandable and convenient for a broad range of users. The main concept underlying access control in Panoply is based on "spheres of influence." These spheres divide the ubiquitous computing world into logical and physical groups, and the research will carefully define the ways in which devices interact with each other and move between spheres. The concepts will be tested in an art musuem, where mobile computing devices will be used by children and others.
NSF Award #0427748

D. Cross-disciplinary approaches

1. An Economic Approach to Security. Joan Feigenbaum, Dirk Bergemann, Yale University, Scott Shenker, International Computer Science Institute. This is a three-year, multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary research project on the economics of security in networked environments. Specific research topics to be pursued include security of interdomain routing, adoptability of trusted platforms, compatibility of "host security" mechanisms (such as OS file-protection systems) and "network security" mechanisms (such as firewalls), the tension between universal access to a subnetwork and security of that subnetwork's assets (and the sensitivity of this question to subnetwork size), and markets for private information. The goal of the proposed activity is to broaden and deepen the nature of security research so that it (1) includes full consideration of adoption incentives and other relevant economic issues and (2) fully integrates multiple subdisciplines of CS research.
NSF Award #0428422

2. Network Security Begins at Home: Changing Consumer Behavior for i-Safety. Robert LaRose, Michigan State University. This project extends online privacy research to develop a theoretical model of online safety behavior, evaluates and tests that model in the context of current security interventions, and develops and tests a consumer online safety tool. The term i-Safety connotes information safety and also the role that all individuals play in preserving it. The model synthesizes theories of human behavior and theories of consumer information processing. Specifically, it examines the relationships among safety involvement, knowledge of online safety hazards, the expected outcomes of safe and unsafe online behavior, self-efficacy beliefs in one.s abilities to avoid risk and to take preventive actions, and social norms about online behavior, the performance of both risky and preventive behavior, and the formation of safe online habits. Phase 1 will extend and validate a theoretical model of online safety behavior through a national panel survey of 1000 Internet users using structural equation modeling techniques. In Phase 2 panel members will be recontacted to participate in experimental studies of the effects of online safety interventions on consumer information processing and safety behavior. An online safety auditing application will be developed to measure effectiveness. In Phase 3 the safety auditing application will be expanded into a personalized safety assessment tool that will facilitate personalized online safety instruction, and the effectiveness of the application will be evaluated.
NSF Award #0430318

3. Defense from Cyber-Attack Using Deception. Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School. Deception is a key feature of human social interaction not much studied in either information security or artificial intelligence. This research aims to develop testable computational models of deception, including the major sub-phenomena of trust, expectation, suspicion, surprise, deception plans, and manufactured patterns. Such a theory can be used to explain both offensive deceptions (to gain some advantage) and defensive deceptions (to foil someone else's plans). This theory will be used to build and test deceptive software for a second line of defense for computer systems against attack.
NSF Award #0429411

4. (see Bertino/Anton project, E.1 below)

E. Theoretical foundations for concepts such as privacy or availability

1. A Comprehensive Policy-Driven Framework for Online Privacy Protection: Integrating IT, Human, Legal and Economic Perspectives. Elisa Bertino, Melissa Dark, Ninghui Li, Robert Proctor, Victor Raskin, Purdue University, Ana Anton and Ting Yu, North Carolina State University. This three-year, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary research project will provide a comprehensive framework for protecting online privacy, covering the entire privacy policy life cycle. It will advance the state of the art in methods and techniques dealing with privacy policy specification, deployment, enforcement and communication. Expected results include: (1) An expressive language for specifying privacy policies that has an intuitive and precise semantics based on a rich ontological resource. (2) A comprehensive framework for authoring, enforcing, and auditing privacy policies. This includes access control theory and tools to enforce privacy policies in distributed information systems (e.g., databases), theory and tools for policy analysis, tools for authoring policies, as well as information flow control theory based on privacy policies. (3) Methodologies and tools for empowering users with control of their own privacy, through user-friendly and ontology-based interfaces. (4) Methodologies and tools for evaluating today's privacy practices as well as studying the economic and legal factors in online privacy protection. Trustworthy privacy protection can only be attained when broad consideration is given not only to IT (information technology) solutions, but also to a wide range of perspectives from other disciplines. To this end, the project will systematically integrate privacy-relevant human, legal and economic perspectives in the framework.
NSF Award #0430274

2. Privacy-Aware Information Release Control. Sushil Jajodia and Claudio Bettini, George Mason University, and Xiaoyang Wang, University of Vermont. The starting point of this project is the realization that privacy concerns take different forms for different data sets. In order to preserve the privacy of individuals, the privacy concerns must be formalized. When data is released, whether used in privacy-preserving data mining or simply published to the third party or the general public, these privacy rules need to be satisfied. This is termed privacy aware information release control. Two general approaches are adopted: query anonymization and online data checking. Query anonymization means that all queries are to be evaluated to see how much privacy is disclosed through the query. If the query discloses too much, some changes will be made so that the privacy level will be maintained. Here, the technical challenge is how to ensure that the system will release the maximum information but without any privacy violation. Online data checking means that when data is released, privacy rules will be checked on the to-be-released data to find any privacy violation. The technical challenge of online checking is its efficiency. These two methods are complementary and can sometimes be used together in a practical system. The above techniques are based on knowing the privacy level that the data requester is allowed to have. Once data is released, depending on the level of private data contained in the output, some obligations may be attached. This project also tackles the problems related to management of such obligations.
NSF Award #0430402

3. Experiments in CyberSpace. Roy Maxion and Dan Siewiorek, Carnegie Mellon University. The main objective of this research is to bring experimental and analytic rigor to bear on a range of problems important to operations in cyberspace (metrics, measurements, and evaluation), as well as to demonstrate the effectiveness of that rigor in actually solving real problems and producing useful and broadly employed tools in these same areas. The planned results of this project include:

  • A publicly available set of well-vetted metrics for intrusion detection algorithms.
  • A suite of tools for generating custom reference data sets to be used for testing the operational range of detector algorithms.
  • A set of gold-standard reference data sets that anyone can use for testing new or revised detector algorithms, and that can be used for replicating the work and claims of others on a common basis.
  • A tool for running complex experiments to broadly evaluate the strengths and limitations and operational effectiveness of detection algorithms for computer security.
  • An introductory curriculum for rigorous experimental computer science.

NSF Award #0430474

4. Privacy-Protecting Mechanisms for Data Escrow and Transaction Monitoring. Stanislaw Jarecki, UC-Irvine. Mechanisms that limit the privacy threats posed by data collection and monitoring applications, while still enabling their efficient operation, are the goal of this research. The conflict between privacy and monitoring can only be resolved if the monitoring agency does not require unconstrained access to the data. For example, if the agency only needs access to data that satisfy some pre-defined suspicious patterns, then cryptographic mechanisms may enforce both the correctness of the accessed data and the secrecy and anonymity of the data that do not meet the searched-for patterns. The research will (1) identify patterns likely to generate the most exciting and beneficial applications of data escrow and monitoring, (2) discover cryptographic techniques that enable efficient privacy-protected monitoring for data patterns within the identified classes, (3) search for practical solutions that admit, for example, weakened measures of privacy or only probabilistic correctness and detectability of the monitored patterns. Preliminary investigations identified the link between simple privacy-protected data escrow applications and deterministic encryptions, unlinkable signatures on ciphertexts, and fair two-party computation of probabilistic functionalities.
NSF Award #0430622

5. (ITR) Privacy-Preserving Data Integration and Sharing. Christopher Clifton, Ahmed Elmagarmid, Purdue U., Dan Suciu, U. Washington, AnHai Doan, U. Illinois, Gunther Schadow, Regenstreif Institute for Healthcare. This project will develop the technology needed to create and manage federated databases while controlling the disclosure of private data. While the emphasis will be on general techniques for data integration that preserve privacy, the project will work in the context of diverse but particularly relevant problem domains, including scientific research and emergency preparedness. Domain experts from these fields will participate in developing and testing the techniques. Research thrusts will investigate (1) developing a privacy framework for data integration that is both flexible and understandable to end users, (2) establishing semantic correspondence between schemas while limiting disclosure, (3) querying across sources while preserving privacy, and (4) object matching and consolidation without revealing data sources.
NSF Award #0428168

6. (ITR) The Design and Use of Digital Identities. Elisa Bertino, Howard Sypher, Purdue University.
This project addresses a wide variety of digital identity needs by developing required Flexible, Multiple and Dependable Digital Identity (FMDDI) technology, based on a sound underlying set of definitions and principles. The FMDDI technology developed in the project will support multiple forms of identity, including nyms, partial identities, and a variety of user properties, credentials, and roles. Relevant research trusts in the project include: identity schemes and representation formats; use of ontology and issues related to identity interoperability; anonymity, dependability, accountability, and forensic-friendly identification schemes; psychological and social aspects related to the use of digital identities.
NSF Award #0428554

F. Create composable systems and policies

1. Integrating Security and Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems. Andrew Myers, Ken Birman, and Fred Schneider, Cornell University. This research focuses on the construction of trustworthy distributed systems: systems that tolerate both malicious attacks and benign faults while preserving data integrity and confidentiality. The development of high-assurance systems has been dominated by work on two separate themes: security and fault tolerance. Security dogma holds that a trustworthy system must be able to defend against malicious attacks, building from a trusted computing base. Fault tolerance dogma maintains that a trustworthy system cannot depend on any single component functioning correctly, because that component becomes a vulnerability. These two views are incompatible because a trusted computing base could become a single point of failure, and because efficient fault-tolerant replication protocols assume nonmalicious failures. This project will explore new ways to synthesize these two approaches. The goal is new methods for constructing distributed systems that are trustworthy in the aggregate even when some nodes in the system have been compromised by malicious attackers.
NSF Award #0430161

2. A Survivable Information Infrastructure for National Civilian BioDefense. Yair Amir and Brian Coan, Johns Hopkins, Cristina Rita-Notaru, Purdue, and Rafail Ostrovsky, UCLA. This research aims to develop the theoretical foundation and the protocols that facilitate a survivable information infrastructure that meets all the critical requirements of a national emergency response system. A key part of the work will focus on a survivable messaging infrastructure that will continue to function in an environment where some servers are compromised. The research will attempt to identify general principles that will help construct other national emergency systems sharing similar characteristics and requirements.
NSF Award #0430271

3. Byzantine Replication for Trustworthy Systems. Lorenzo Alvisi and Michael Dahlin, University of Texas. In a world where economics dictates that few components be rigorously tested or verified, methods for building trustworthy systems from untrustworthy components are essential. An attractive approach toward managing the complexity inherent in building trustworthy distributed systems consists in modeling a compromised component as faulty according to the Byzantine failure model---the weakest of all failure models, which allows faulty components to deviate arbitrarily and maliciously from their correct specification. This research explores the feasibility of this approach, both with respect to its fundamental assumptions and to its engineering viability. On the first front, the focus is on (1) the challenge of conjugating fault-tolerance and privacy by developing a firewall with formally verifiable privacy guarantees and (2) the establishment of a solid, quantitative basis for measuring failure independence of replicas against security attacks in Byzantine fault-tolerant architectures. On the second front, the emphasis is on exploring novel ways to implement Byzantine services that provide low latency, high throughput, and can be quickly and unobtrusively reconfigured to improve their performance in response to changes in the environment in which they operate. Addressing these issues successfully will enable a strategy for assembling untrustworthy components to obtain trustworthy systems.
NSF Award #0430510

4. High Fidelity Methods for Security Protocols. John Mitchell, Stanford, Andre Scedrov, Univ. of Pennsylvania, Vitaly Shmatikov, Univ. of Texas - Austin, and Daniele Micciancio, Univ. of California - San Diego. This project focuses on three topics concerning the design and security analysis of protocols that use cryptographic primitives: foundations of protocol analysis, automated tools, and application of tools and methods to selected protocols. Foundational work centers on relating and combining two previously separate approaches: logical methods based on symbolic execution of protocols, and computational methods involving probability and polynomial-time. The symbolic approach uses a highly idealized representation of cryptographic primitives and has been a successful basis for automated tools. Conversely, the computational approach yields more insight into the strength and vulnerabilities of protocols, but is difficult to apply and only accessible to a small number of true experts in the field. Building on past success using several automated tools, the project will devise tool-based methods that leverage new scientific foundations. Three likely application areas are secure group communication and key agreement protocols, schemes for privacy-preserving computations, and wireless networking and applications. In each of these areas, there is current demand for new secure protocols from user communities, there is ongoing activity in the research and standardization communities, and the value of combining symbolic and computational analysis concepts is evident.
NSF Award #0430594

G. Present security concepts effectively to the average user

1. Secure Personalization: Building Trustworthy Recommender Systems. Robin Burke and Bamshad Mobasher, DePaul University. Many ordinary users of e-commerce systems today depend on the recommendations presented by a variety of ccommercial web sites; this format of information is evidently accepted by a wide range of users. This research will conduct a comprehensive study of the robustness of recommender systems in the face of malicious attacks. The analysis will be multidimensional, examining the effects of a range of attack types on a comprehensive set of recommendation algorithms including hybrid approaches using different types of user profiles in diverse recommendation domains. Formal models will be developed for the analysis of robustness in recommender systems. Different attack types will be explored and modeled; attack detection and countermeasures will be considered, and techniques for enhancing the robustness of recommeder systems will be explored.
NSF Award #0430303

2. LaRose (D.2 above) NSF Award #0430318

3. Kleinrock (C.2 above) NSF Award #0427748

H. Improved ability to certify system security properties

1. Type Qualifiers for Software Security. Alexander Aiken, Stanford, David Wagner, UC-Berkeley, Jeffrey Foster, U Maryland. This research has the goal of establishing that very large software components are free of specific kinds of security vulnerabilities. Thus, the focus is not just in finding security holes in software, but in verifying their absence. The approach is based on static analysis, which by analyzing source code can model all possible executions of a program. Previous experience has shown that simple, approximate tools do not find all or even nearly all security vulnerabilities; the higher assurance given by verification is needed. The experimental goal is to apply these techniques to the Linux kernel, a security-critical application with millions of lines of code.
NSF Award #0430378

2. Trusted Certification Tools. Warren Hunt and J Strother Moore, Univ. of Texas - Austin. This research focuses on the goal of producing high assurance systems, in which the buyer can specify the required software/hardware properties formally and the untrusted vendor can provide with the delivered product a machine-checkable proof that the product has the specified properties. Achieving the vision requires, providing specification paradigms (so buyers can afford to specify what they want), making the task of finding the first proof less labor intensive (so implementors can afford to prove their claims), and making the proof tools trustworthy (so their flaws cannot be exploited). This research aims to advance elements of all three in the context of the widely used ACL2 theorem proving system. The automation and scalability of ACL2 will be increased, a demonstration of how ACL2 allows an untrusted contractor to deliver a trusted artifact will be provided, and (c) methods for producing a trustworthy but industrial-strength certification tool will be explored.
NSF Award #0429591

I. Improved ability to analyze security designs, build systems correctly

1. Cryptographic Foundations of Cyber Trust. Shafi Goldwasser, MIT. The design of cryptographic protocols is a complex endeavor, which must be accompanied by a security analysis which rests on sound theoretical foundations. This research will address challenges that arise in the the design of cryptographic protocols at multiple levels, from the mathematical underpinnings of computational difficulty, through modeling and analysis of protocols, to deployment and run-time issues. The following objectives will be pursued: diversifying cryptographic hardness assumptions; adequate modeling and analysis of cryptographic protocols in complex environments; analyzing the security of current practices; and designing new cryptographic protocols which achieve stronger levels of security. The diversity of the challenges addressed will have a significant impact on the design and practice of cryptographic protocols in the future.
NSF Award #0430450

2. New Complexity-theoretic techniques in cryptography. Salil Vadhan, Harvard. Most of modern cryptography relies on computationally intractable problems, and computational complexity theory is the study of such problems. The research focuses on techniques from computational complexity that may help in addressing important open problems in cryptography and security. The research is foundational in nature, yet it can advance a variety of current applications in trustworthy computing, such as doing cryptography with human-memorizable passwords, mitigating the effect of key exposure, and extracting cryptographic keys from biometrics. New applications may include proving the security of Fiat-Shamir-type digital signatures, doing public-key cryptography from one-way functions with no trapdoor, and understanding the extent to which obfuscation, watermarking, and homomorphic encryption are possible.
NSF Award #0430336

3. CAREER: Efficient Cryptographic Protocols for Secure and Private Cryptographic Transactions. Anna Lysyanskaya, Brown U. Electronic transactions, such as managing bank accounts or reading e-mail, require privacy and security. Since data aggregation is simple to do, it is desirable to minimize the information transmitted in each transaction without compromising its authenticity. Cryptographic schemes that make this possible are the intended outcome of this research. This project investigates the security requirements of the basic protocols that a system for secure and private electronic transactions would comprise and develops efficient and provably secure digital signature schemes and other primitives that lend themselves to the design of such protocols.
NSF Award #0347661

4. CAREER: Strengthening Cryptography by Reducing Assumptions about the Adversary. Tal Malkin, Columbia U. Cryptographic security models are defined in terms of the capabilities of the adversary, including computational limitations and what access is allowed to the system. The security of protocols is then proven with respect to such adversaries. Proofs based on fewer and weaker assumptions about the adversary show stronger protocols. This research will expand the traditional cryptographic foundations so as to withstand attacks by stronger, more realistic adversaries. In particular, the classical assumption that the adversary has no access whatsoever to the legitimate parties' secret keys will be relaxed. The research will study the strongest existing models, design new models, develop protocols, and explore the limits of what is possible to achieve, for chosen ciphertext attacks, tampering attacks, and key exposure attacks.
NSF Award #0347839

5. Temporal Aspects. Alan Jeffrey, Radha Jagadeesan, James Riely, DePaul U., Glenn Bruns, Lucent. This research investigates the use of aspect-oriented programming language techniques as a safe means to update the functions and security policies of a high-confidence computer system while the system is running. The specification, implementation, and verification of secured components will be studied in an aspect-oriented style. The addition of new software components will be modeled as dynamic aspects that can modify software during its execution. Dynamic aspects introduce the possibility for subtle bugs to be introduced in the interaction between conflicting aspects. A similar problem (known as the Feature Interaction Problem) has been studied in the telecommunications field. The experience and techniques from that area will be brought to bear on security features modeled as aspects. Tools will be developed to support these methods, and they will be applied in case studies.
NSF Award #0430175

6. CAREER: Language-based Distributed System Security. Stephan A. Zdancewic, U. Pennsylvania. This research addresses the problem of building distributed systems and reasoning about their security by developing programming languages that provide better abstractions for describing security policies and communication protocols. The project builds on existing work on security-typed languages, which protect data confidentiality and integrity. This research generalizes these information-flow policies to make them more dynamic, enabling them to accommodate the changing environment in which distributed systems run. For example, dynamic information-flow policies should integrate cleanly with traditional authentication and access control mechanisms to provide end-to-end guarantees about data confidentiality. The second stage of this project is to develop language technology that applies dynamic security policies to distributed programs. The idea for this part of the research is to develop a theoretical basis for secure distributed computing using existing process calculi augmented with a heterogeneous trust model and the policy language outlined above. In this setting, types describe communication protocols, properties of which can be verified statically by the compiler. The result will be a programming language with a sound type system that aids the programmer in writing correct, security-critical distributed programs.
NSF Award #0346939

7. CAREER: Programming Languages for Reliable and Secure Low-level Systems. Michael Hicks, U. Maryland. This project aims to develop, implement, apply, and evaluate programming language technologies to ensure the security and reliability of low-level systems -- systems that require careful control over hardware resources, such as operating systems, embedded systems, and communications systems. The approach is to employ novel static analysis techniques, primarily type checking and inference systems, for automatically checking proper usage of idioms common to low-level software. These idioms include manual memory management, concurrency, and dynamic reconfiguration; their incorrect usage can lead to service failures, data corruption, and security exploits. For assessment, the new techniques will be incorporated into a new C-like programming language called Cyclone, which is then used to build or port real low-level software, including device drivers, network packet processors and servers, and embedded control software. These systems are experimentally compared against traditionally-developed systems to evaluate their flexibility, usability, and performance.
NSF Award #0346989

8. CAREER: Type Systems for Secure Code Migration. James Riely, DePaul U. Distributed systems increasingly rely on forms of code migration, such as client-side scripting, downloaded plugins, application service providers, and networked class loading. In executing migrating code, trust becomes an important issue: why should a host trust some newly arrived code to run locally? And why should a migrating agent trust the host where it is now running? One part of a trust architecture can be the use of type-checking: a host trusts a newly arrived agent if it can type-check it. This project uses semantic techniques to provide a formal basis for trust issues in distributed object-oriented systems with code migration. The formal models are a basis for a prototype language implementation that provides a secure infrastructure for distributed application development. Both the problems of a host trusted potentially hostile mobile code and mobile code trusting a potentially hostile host will be addressed. The problems are formalized using type systems incorporating trust and models of encryption and digital signatures in order to transmit trust across the network.
NSF Award #0347542

9. CAREER: The Test-Driven Development of Secure and Reliable Software Applications. Laurie Williams, North Carolina State University. This research will extend, validate, and disseminate a software development practice to aid in the prevention of computer-related disasters. The practice is based upon test-driven development (TDD), a software development technique with tight verification and validation feedback loops. This project extends the TDD practice and provides a supportive open-source tool for explicitly situating security as a primary attribute considered in these tight feedback loops. Additionally, it examines the composition of TDD and pair programming/pair testing as a security- and reliability-enhancing tuple of development practices. The study will also examine the potential of pair programming/pair testing for improving the success/retention of socially-oriented women, men, and minorities in the IT workforce.
NSF Award #0346903.

10. Trustworthy Data Sharing and Management for Collaborative Pervasive Computing Applications. Stephen Yau, Arizona State U. Data sharing and management in collaborative pervasive computing applications have the following trustworthiness requirements: (a) flexible and adaptive access control to shared data, (b) efficient and secure shared data discovery and retrieval/delivery, (c) authentication of group member devices, (d) scalable and lightweight group key management, (e) detection of attacks and malicious users, (f) availability of shared data whenever needed, (g) shared data quality assurance, and (h) inference prevention. This research will generate a new trustworthy shared data service management technique, including an OWL-based shared data service specification language, an automated service generation technique, a shared data service discovery protocol and a lightweight situation-aware access control framework. Our approach will be based on Web Services architecture, emerging OWL technology and our Reconfigurable Context-Sensitive Middleware (RCSM) and Secure Group Communication Service (SGCS). The expected results will be implemented as a set of middleware components and services. A demonstration application will be developed and used to evaluate the results.
NSF Award #0430565

11. (ITR) Secure Remote Computing Services. Jason Nieh, Columbia U. This research will investigate the hypothesis that a combination of lightweight process migration, remote display technology, overlay-based security and trust-management access control mechanisms, driven by an autonomic management utility, can result in a significant improvement in overall system reliability and security. Secure remote computing services (SRCS) will move all application logic and data from insecure end-user devices, which attackers can easily corrupt, steal and destroy, to autonomic server farms in physically secure, remote data centers that can rapidly adapt to computing demands especially in times of crisis. Users can then access their computing state from anywhere, anytime, using simple, stateless Internet-enabled devices.
NSF Award #0426623

12. CAREER: XML Middleware for Privacy-Preserving Database Publishing. Alin Deutsch, U. California -San Diego. This project aims to help data owners deal with the ever-increasing demand of publishing proprietary data on the Web as XML, in useful yet controlled ways. One major thrust is the development of tools allowing data publishers to check that the privacy of sensitive data is not inadvertently violated by what is exposed to the outside view (even indirectly). The publisher specifies the sensitive data via a secret query S against the proprietary schema and the tools check that attackers cannot compute the answer to S (exactly or approximately) from the published data. The research approach includes development of a hierarchy of privacy guarantees, qualified by the accuracy of the approximation and the attacker's computational resources. The second project goal is the delivery of tools for integrating web publishing with the limited query interfaces supported by current "web services" technologies. The project seeks solutions for (i) the query set specification using concise, intuitive visual paradigms and (ii) the rewriting of client queries to execution plans, which invoke only supported queries. The developed technologies will benefit all categories of data owners who publish on the Web, from commercial/governmental/academic institutions to private individuals.
NSF Award #0347968

J. More effective system monitoring, anomaly detection, attack recognition and defense

1. An Adaptive Integrated Behavior Monitoring and Modeling Approach for High Performance/High Speed Network Computing Environments. Rayford Vaughn, Susan Bridges, Yogindar Dandass, Mississippi State Univ. This research focuses on the security of high performance clusters of computers with dedicated workloads. Because the workloads are dedicated, hence reasonably stable, anomaly detection may be particularly successful in identifying incorrect or sabotaged system behavior. This research will employ runtime multi-resolution system behavior monitoring to collect data used to generate behavioral models. These models will be applied to detect anomalous behavior. Dedicated coprocessors will be investigated as a means to offload the modeling and anomaly detection workload from the operational cluster.
NSF Award #0430354

2. Security Through Interaction Modeling (STIM). Michael Reiter, Bruce Maggs, Dena Tsamitas, Chenxi Wang, Jeanette Wing, Carnegie Mellon U. Computer misuse is often easier to recognize in particular instances than it is to specify in general, and is highly sensitive to experience and context. Nevertheless, few computer security technologies adequately utilize models of experience and context in defending against misuse. This research explores the thesis that many computer defenses can be dramatically improved, in both efficacy and usability, by modeling experience and context in a way that allows the models to become an integral element for defending the system. The interactions that can be modeled and potentially exploited are ubiquitous---they exist among persons (e.g., different user roles in access control), among computers and networks (e.g., what computers and networks typically correspond with what others), and even among attacks (e.g., what attacks realize the preconditions of others). Developing security technologies that better utilize such interactions forms the core of the research agenda in "security through interaction modeling" (STIM). This effort promises advances in diverse areas of security technology, such as attack traffic filtering, more usable authorization systems, and intrusion detection and response. A central goal of the STIM activity is education and outreach. Its efforts here include the construction of a security education portal and cybersecurity curricula for many education levels, ranging from children through college faculty.
NSF Award #0433540

3. CAREER: Biologically Motivated Models for the Dynamics of Computer Networks: Performance, Growth and Pathological Conditions. Biplab Sikdar, Rensselaer Polytech Inst. This project will develop biologically motivated models for characterizing the dynamics of computer networks including their performance, growth and pathological conditions. In contrast to existing frameworks which typically focus on the steady state behavior, this work will develop models for the dynamic behavior of networks. The research focuses on three topics: (1) Models for the dynamics and propagation of network instabilities which encompass models for malicious worm attacks, network and human factors influencing them, and developing mechanisms to detect such attacks; (2) Models for the spatio-temporal aspects of performance metrics like traffic characteristics, delays and packet losses in large scale networks; (3) Models for the dynamics of wireless networks like growth patterns, battery consumption and network life, and spatial characteristics of cluster formations. Four groups of models from biological sciences including population models, genetic models, models based on pattern formation and epidemic models are used to address these research topics.
NSF Award #0347623

4. Detection of self-propagating malicious code. Hayder Radha, Michigan State U.
Statistical and information-theoretic techniques will be used to develop novel methods for real-time detection of anomalies in network traffic that might be caused by malicious code. Stochastic modeling techniques will be used to characterize user- and network-level traffic and provide a basis for defining Neyman-Pearson null hypotheses. Portable software will be developed to support real-time and adaptive intrusion detection.
NSF Award #0430436

5. DefCOM - Distributed Defense against DDoS Attacks. Jelena Mirkovic, U. Delaware, Peter Reiher, UCLA. An experimental distributed system to defend against distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks will be prototyped and evaluated. The system, DefCOM, combines victim-end defenses (for attack detection) and source-end defenses (for response and separation of legitimate traffic from attack traffic). Backbone routers are enlisted to control attack traffic in partial deployment scenarios where many potential sources do not deploy a source-end defense. DefCOM's response to attacks is twofold: defense nodes reduce the attack traffic, freeing the victim's resources, and they also cooperate to detect legitimate traffic within the suspicious stream and ensure its correct delivery to the victim. Because networks deploying defense nodes directly benefit from their operation, DefCOM has a workable economic model to spur its deployment. DefCOM further offers a framework for existing security systems to join the overlay and cooperate in the defense. These features can motivate wide deployment, and may significantly reduce the effects of DDoS attacks.
NSF Award #0430228

6. CAREER: A Multiresolution Approach to Network Anomaly and Intrusion Detection. Paul Barford, U. Wisconsin. This project aims to measure traffic and detect anomalies and intrusions in wide area networks. The measurements will support precise, real-time identification of anomalies/intrusions, enabling future networks to function securely and efficiently. New, in-situ measurement systems will be built and deployed to collect traffic data from many locations across the Internet and store it in a centralized repository in an anonymized, privacy preserving format. Research access to the data will be provided through a private, secure web interface. In conjunction with the measurement and data collection activity, the research will develop multiresolution analysis methods based on wavelets, which isolate distinct traffic characteristics in both frequency and time, thus enabling accurate and timely detection of anomalies/intrusions. A library of measurement/analysis tools and the data repository will be made available to the research community. This project will also develop a series of laboratory experiments to provide secondary and university students a hand-on means of learning about the Internet. This effort involves collaboration on both the measurement and analysis activities with network operators, researchers in industry and researchers in disciplines outside of networking including applied math, statistics and signal processing.
NSF Award # 0347252

K. Integrating Hardware and Software for Security

1. SecureCore for Trustworthy Commodity Computing and Communications. Lee et. al. (See A. Operating Systems 3 above)
NSF Award #0430487

2. Privacy and Surveillance In Wireless Systems. Grunwald et. al. (See A. Networking. 1 above)
NSF Award #0430593

3. Trustworthy and Resilient Location Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks. Ning, et. al. (see A. Networking. 2 above).
NSF Award #0430223

4. Design and Implementation of Hydra: A Platform for Survivable and Secure Storage Systems. Lihao Xu, (See A. Storage. 1 above)
NSF Award #0430224


As noted above, no single classification scheme for a set of awards can meet all needs. Listed below are the types of awards in this set, followed three additional sets of technical categories that can also be used to organize these awards, linked to the paragraphs above. A matrix categorizing each award according to these classifications, with hyperlinks to the Fastlane abstract for the award, is provided in the PDF document below.

Award Type Classifications for FY04 NSF core cyber security awards

Technical area classifications for FY04 NSF core cyber security awards

A. Cyber Trust solicitation (broad categories)

B. Security life cycle phase

C. Security disciplines

Cyber Security FY04 Award Summary (PDF 187 KB)

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