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All Images

Discovery
Squeezing Noise Below Quantum Limits

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Illustration of a nanoscale experiment.

An incoming small signal arrives at a capacitor (the microwave analog of a mirror) which couples the signal into a non-linear microwave cavity. The signal and its quantum noise are amplified and reflected; however, the noise acquires a non-classical feature known as squeezing.

In this illustration, the white areas depict the silicon substrate of the coplanar waveguide, the green strips are superconducting niobium metal, and the blue lines are thin dielectric (insulating) layers. The yellow areas are Josephson junctions, each consisting of three layers: niobium, aluminum oxide and niobium.

The incoming small microwave signal gets reflected by the capacitor (the small white area between two green strips) into the microwave cavity (green strip with blue lines). In the yellow areas, electrons from the niobium metal 'tunnel' back and forth through the aluminum oxide layer, causing an electric signal to flow. Not shown: A large magnetic coil surrounding the device applies a magnetic field to the Josephson junctions, which disrupts the electric signal.

Credit: Greg Kuebler, JILA, University of Colorado 2008-9


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Image showing the long, thin metamaterial amplifier, with input and output ports.

SEM image showing the long, thin metamaterial amplifier, with input and output ports.

Credit: Manueal Castellanos-Beltran, JILA and the Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder


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Image of the port where the microwave signal gets coupled into the amplifier.

SEM image of the port where the microwave signal gets coupled into the amplifier.

Credit: Manuel Castellanos-Beltran, JILA and the Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder


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Image showing the array of 480 SQUIDs.

SEM image showing the array of 480 SQUIDs (a total of 960 Josephson Junctions), which allows the amplifier to be tuned over a wide range of microwave frequencies.

Credit: Manuel Castellanos-Beltran, JILA and the Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder


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