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Winter Weather in Gallatin Canyon

Winter weather in the Gallatin Canyon which borders Yellowstone National Park


Winter weather in the Gallatin Canyon which borders Yellowstone National Park.

This image was taken during National Science Foundation-supported (grant IBN 02-38169) research by Scott Creel, a professor of ecology at Montana State University, to examine the response of prey to the risk of predation and the physiological costs and dynamical consequences of those responses. One part of this work examined the responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to variation in the risk of predation by wolves (Canis lupus).

The goals of the project were to quantify the responses of elk to variation in predation risk, including responses in behavior, feeding ecology, distribution and patterns of grouping; to determine the costs of these responses, physiologically and demographically; and to determine the impact of these costs on the population dynamics of both elk and wolves. (Date of Image: 2002)

Credit: Scott Creel and John Winnie, Montana State University, Department of Ecology
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