text-only page produced automatically by LIFT Text Transcoder Skip all navigation and go to page contentSkip top navigation and go to directorate navigationSkip top navigation and go to page navigation
National Science Foundation
design element
News From the Field
For the News Media
Special Reports
Research Overviews
NSF-Wide Investments
Speeches & Lectures
NSF Current Newsletter
Multimedia Gallery
Search Multimedia
Multimedia in the News
NSF Executive Staff
News Archive

Email this pagePrint this page
Routing congestion on integrated circuits is one of the physical limits to computation.

placement of a large integrated circuit, spacers and heat map of resource allocation

The image on the right shows the physical placement of a large, integrated circuit with logic gates in blue and "packing peanuts" (spacers) in red. The "heat maps" on the left show wiring congestion--green and yellow show sparse connectivity, but red and purple show insufficient routing resources. Routing congestion is one of the manifestations of physical limits to computation. The progression of images illustrates how computer-aided design tools address routing congestion by revising circuit placement.

Credit: Myung-Chul Kim, Jin Hu, Igor L. Markov; University of Michigan

General Restrictions:
Images and other media in the Multimedia in the News section of the NSF Multimedia Gallery are for use by the news media only. All other users must obtain permission from the image owner, listed in the credit above, before using the visual material.

Images credited to the National Science Foundation, a federal agency, are in the public domain. The images were created by employees of the United States Government as part of their official duties or prepared by contractors as "works for hire" for NSF. You may freely use NSF-credited images and, at your discretion, credit NSF with a "Courtesy: National Science Foundation" notation. Additional information about general usage can be found in Conditions.

Also Available:
Download the high-resolution JPG version of the image. (1.1 MB)

Use your mouse to right-click (Mac users may need to Ctrl-click) the link above and choose the option that will save the file or target to your computer.

Related story: Can computers continue to get smaller and more powerful?


Email this pagePrint this page
Back to Top of page