text-only page produced automatically by LIFT Text Transcoder Skip all navigation and go to page contentSkip top navigation and go to directorate navigationSkip top navigation and go to page navigation
National Science Foundation Home National Science Foundation - Social, Behavioral & Economic Sciences (SBE)
Social and Economic Sciences (SES)
design element
SES Home
About SES
Funding Opportunities
Awards
News
Events
Discoveries
Publications
Career Opportunities
Data Archiving Policy
Human Subjects Guidance
View SES Staff
SBE Organizations
Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCS)
National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES)
Social and Economic Sciences (SES)
SBE Office of Multidisciplinary Activities (SMA)
Proposals and Awards
Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide
  Introduction
Proposal Preparation and Submission
bullet Grant Proposal Guide
  bullet Grants.gov Application Guide
Award and Administration
bullet Award and Administration Guide
Award Conditions
Other Types of Proposals
Merit Review
NSF Outreach
Policy Office
Other Site Features
Special Reports
Research Overviews
Multimedia Gallery
Classroom Resources
NSF-Wide Investments

Email this pagePrint this page


Press Release 11-170
Living on the Edge of Poverty and National Parks

Decade-long study questions conventional wisdom about the relationship between national parks and poverty

Photo of two children at the edge of Kibale National Park, Uganda.

People living near Kibale National Park are not poorer than people in other parts of Uganda.
Credit and Larger Version

August 22, 2011

If so many poor people live around national parks in developing countries, does that mean that these parks are contributing to their poverty?

Yes, according to the conventional wisdom, but no, according to a 10-year study of people living around Kibale National Park in Uganda that was published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"Often people have lamented that the poorest of the poor live on the edge of the parks, and the assumption is that it's the parks that are keeping people poor," said Lisa Naughton, a professor of geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The issue matters, she said, because "people say we can't afford to protect biodiversity" if that inflicts further economic hardship on people who are already poor.

"This project demonstrates the value of using integrated approaches to examine the complex interactions between people and the environments they occupy," said Thomas Baerwald, a program director for the Geography and Spatial Sciences Program at the National Science Foundation, which partially funded the study.

To explore the relationship of parks, poverty and biodiversity conservation, Naughton and colleagues monitored 252 families living within three miles of Kibale National Park beginning in 1996. The general trend 10 years later was toward greater prosperity, as measured by access to clean drinking water, ownership of more livestock, and living under an improved roof rather than the traditional thatch.

"Most of the households came out ahead, are a lot better off than when we started," said Naughton, who has worked in Uganda for more than 20 years. "I go back every couple of years, and people are generally optimistic, some say they never imagined life would be this good."

But 10 percent of the families in the original study sold or lost their land and moved away, which indicates severe poverty, said co-author Jennifer Alix-Garcia, an assistant professor of agricultural and applied economics at UW-Madison. "The sale of land does not sound so terrible to us, but in Uganda, land is your most productive asset, and once you sell it, you don't have anything to rely on."

Although one finds a disproportionate presence of the very poor at the park edge today, more of their very poor counterparts, who lived further away, were forced to sell or give up their land as well, said Alix-Garcia.

"Apparently the park provides a source of insurance; they can hunt, or sell firewood or thatch from the park," she said. "It's misleading. If you look, you see more poor people living near the park. But when you look at the change in assets, you see that the poor people who live next to the park have lost less than poor people who live farther away."

And that suggests that the park is unlikely to explain the increased poverty among its close neighbors.

"Impressions based on one metric at one scale may be misleading, because other factors may be far more significant over broader geographic and temporal scales," said Baerwald. "Research like this that brings together insights from different disciplines provides valuable new insights that can improve policies and management approaches and enhance human well-being."

Parks, landscapes, societies and economies vary widely, and so it's hard to know how well the results will generalize, Naughton admitted. But she said the study was one of the first to look at parks and poverty over the long term, and the results do undermine the conventional wisdom--that national parks are to blame for the poverty found at their borders.

"If you are concerned about the welfare of the people who live around parks, don't assume that it is the park that is trapping them in poverty. Instead of only looking at the park, turn around and look in the other direction. Land is becoming scarce and most public forests have been cleared or privatized. There are many other factors, it's not just the park," Naughton said.

By looking at changes over time, Naughton claimed, it's easier to understand the real course of events. "There is a lot of research looking at poverty in parks, but much of it amounts to looking just at the present-day location of poverty. For 10 years, we have been looking at the changes: What were the starting conditions? What were the ending conditions?  And did the park matter?"

In addition to significant support from the National Science Foundation, the study's third author was Colin Chapman, an anthropologist from McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

-NSF-

Media Contacts
Bobbie Mixon, NSF, (703) 292-8485, bmixon@nsf.gov
David Tenenbaum, University of Wisconsin-Madison, (608) 265-8549, djtenenb@wisc.edu

Program Contacts
Thomas J. Baerwald, NSF, (703) 292-7301, tbaerwal@nsf.gov

Principal Investigators
Lisa Naughton, University of Wisconsin-Madison, (608) 262-4846, lnaughto@wisc.edu

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2014, its budget is $7.2 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 50,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 11,500 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $593 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

 Get News Updates by Email 

Useful NSF Web Sites:
NSF Home Page: http://www.nsf.gov
NSF News: http://www.nsf.gov/news/
For the News Media: http://www.nsf.gov/news/newsroom.jsp
Science and Engineering Statistics: http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/
Awards Searches: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/

 

border=0/


Email this pagePrint this page
Back to Top of page