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Press Release 10-088
Gulf Oil Spill: NSF Awards Rapid Response Grant to Study Microbes' Natural Degradation of Oil

Do manufactured dispersants interfere with microbes' natural oil-dispersing ability?

Satellite image showing oil on the Gulf's surface glinting in mid-day sunlight.

Oil that has reached the Gulf's surface glints in mid-day sunlight.
Credit and Larger Version

May 21, 2010

To understand how the use of dispersants impacts the degradation of oil in the Gulf of Mexico, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded a rapid response grant to scientist David Valentine of the University of California at Santa Barbara and colleagues.

The massive release of oil from the Deepwater Horizon incident on April 20, 2010, has led to an unprecedented use of oil dispersants, which include a mix of surfactant compounds designed to dissolve oil and to prevent slick formation.

"Dispersants are being sprayed aerially and added at the sea-floor, and the total usage is likely to exceed one million gallons before this is over," Valentine says.

Previous research has shown mixed effects, however, of these surfactants on degradation of oil. Little is known about the effects on the ability of microbes that live in the Gulf to naturally degrade the hydrocarbon compounds found in crude oil.

Crude oil consists of thousands of different compounds, with different chemical structures.

Some evaporate easily, some do not. Some dissolve in water and some do not. Some are easily degraded by microbes and some are not. 

According to Valentine, many different microbes eat oil, but each does so with a different preference for which compounds they attack, like people at a buffet.

Many microbes also produce their own unique surfactants to help corral the oil into a preferred form.

The team seeks to understand how the dispersants added to the spill will interact with natural compounds produced by microbes, and how this will impact the ability of different microbes to break down the oil.

"This research will use a combination of chemical and biological tools to track changes in the composition of the oil, changes in the microbes in the Gulf, and changes in the amount of surfactant present, to determine the impact of these dispersants on oil biodegradation," says Don Rice, program director in NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences, which funded the rapid response award.

Valentine and colleagues are studying how the different dispersants impact the microbes, looking to the molecular patterns of hydrocarbon loss to find answers.

The scientists are acquiring samples of fresh slick oil from near the Deepwater Horizon wellhead; weathered slicks from the offshore environment; and beach tar samples.

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria differ in their substrate preferences, as well as in their response to surfactants, which will play an important role in determining the rate and extent of biodegradation of the oil spill.

"We're researching this real-world spill," Valentine says, "by simultaneously investigating oil composition, the microbes, and the dispersants.

"We think the dispersants may impact the microbes through interference with the action of their natural dispersants."

This NSF grant is one of many Gulf oil spill-related rapid response awards made by the federal agency. NSF's response involves active research in social sciences, geosciences, computer simulation, engineering, biology, and other fields. So far, the Foundation has made more than 60 awards totaling nearly $7 million.

For more on the RAPID program, please see the RAPID guidelines.  See also a regularly updated list of RAPIDs targeting the Gulf oil spill response. Because RAPID grants are being awarded continuously, media can also contact Josh Chamot (jchamot@nsf.gov) in the Office of Legislative and Public Affairs for the latest information on granted awards.

-NSF-

Media Contacts
Cheryl Dybas, NSF, (703) 292-7734, cdybas@nsf.gov

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2014, its budget is $7.2 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives about 50,000 competitive requests for funding, and makes about 11,500 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $593 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

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Scientists collect Gulf of Mexico oil samples for study of the oil degradation process.
Scientists collect Gulf of Mexico oil samples for study of the oil's degradation process.
Credit and Larger Version

Oil along with flotsam and jetsam lining the beaches along the Gulf of Mexico.
Along with flotsam and jetsam, oil lines beaches along the Gulf of Mexico.
Credit and Larger Version

Oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in marsh with a marker for scale.
David Valentine and colleagues study oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill.
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Bird covered with oil.
The Gulf's wildlife is increasingly being affected by the spill.
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Illustration showing the Gulf's Loop Current, which may carry oil far afield.
Oceanographers are carefully watching the Gulf's Loop Current, which may carry oil far afield.
Credit and Larger Version



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