The Emerging Science of Learning

Title Slide: The Emerging Science of Learning

Titles of Elements of the Collage: (1) Dynamics of hearing (2) Anatomical Differences of the Brain (3) Computer chips flying over an image of a circuit board (5) From Genes to Proteins

Caption: (1) Center: The illustrated profile of a person outlined and shaded in gray. (2) Top image of a brain: Within the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, located at the University of California, Los Angeles, researchers led by Paul Thompson and Arthur Toga have created template brains that, when compared to target brains from other normal subjects, can assist in the study of anatomical brain differences related to aging and disease. The variation in color and shape of the spheres at left indicates the magnitude and principal directions of the anatomical differences across subjects. In this model, the greatest difference is in the parietal lobe (lower right), an anticipated result since this lobe appeared much later in the evolutionary process than did more primitive brain areas that vary little from brain to brain. (3) Bottom Right: The illustration of computer chips (brown) flying over an image of a blue circuit board in perspective, heading toward the violet horizon. (4) In the cell nucleus, RNA is produced by transcription, in much the same way that DNA replicates itself. RNA, however, substitutes the sugar ribose for deoxyribose and the base uracil for thymine, and is usually single-stranded. One form of RNA, messenger RNA or mRNA, conveys the DNA recipe for protein synthesis to the cell cytoplasm. There, bound temporarily to a cytoplasmic particle known as a ribosome, each three-base codon of the mRNA links to a specific form of transfer RNA (tRNA) containing the complementary three-base sequence. This tRNA, in turn, transfers a single amino acid to a growing protein chain. Each codon thus unambiguously directs the addition of one amino acid to the protein. On the other hand, the same amino acid can be added by different codons; in this illustration, the mRNA sequences GCA and GCC are both specifying the addition of the amino acid alanine (Ala).

Source: (1) Abelstock (3) iStockPro
Credit: (2) Paul Thompson and Arthur Toga; UCLA (4) U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program
Design by: NSF/A. Jeon
Website: (1) N/A (2) http://olpaimages.nsf.gov/viewimage.cfm?ImageNum=452&RecNum=1&PageType=srch (3) N/A (5) http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis
NSF permission to use: (1) Yes Royalty-free image purchased by OLPA through Ellen Weir;
Reference#: 1717|0016 (2) Yes -- Grant DBI 96-01356 (3) Yes Royalty-free image purchased by OLPA through Ellen Weir; Reference#: 000000025709
Government Image: (4) Yes
Original file name: (1) social4.jpg (2) Anatomical Differences of the Brain.JPG (3) engineer6.jpg (4) 03b_lg.gif
In Image Library: (1) No (2) Yes (3) No (5) No
Permission Form: Not Needed

Next slide Back to first slide View graphic version