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National Science Foundation


NSF Director Subra Suresh, Inaugural Vlasta Klima-Balloun Lecture, Iowa State University, April 15, 2011
Text Slide 25 of 28

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Slide title: Nondefense R&D Gross Expenditures as Share of Gross Domestic Product, for Selected Countries: 1981-2007

Slide image: Line graphs showing the nondefense percent of R&D/GDP of selected countries between 1981 and 2007. The percentages for the years 1981, 1995 and 2007 are listed below:

United States
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.74%; 1995 2.04%; 2007 2.26%

Japan
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 2.13%; 1995 2.89%; 2007 3.40%

China
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 NA; 2007 - NA

Germany
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 2.30 %; 1995 2.12%; 2007 - NA

France
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1.53%; 1995 1.98%; 2007 - NA

South Korea
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 2.26%; 2007 - NA

United Kingdom
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.90%; 1995 1.64%; 2007 - NA

Russia
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 0.60%; 2007 - NA

Canada
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.18; 1995 1.70%; 2007 - NA

Italy
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 0.80; 1995 0.97%; 2007 - NA

Image source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

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