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National Science Foundation


NSF Director Subra Suresh, President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology,
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Slide title: Gross Expenditures on R&D as Share of Gross Domestic Product, for Selected Countries: 1981-2007

Slide image: Two line graphs. The graph on the left shows the total percent of R&D/GDP of selected countries between 1981 and 2007. The graph on the right shows the nondefense percent of R&D/GDP of selected countries between 1981 and 2007. The percentages for the years 1981, 1995 and 2007 are listed below:

United States:
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 - 2.34 %; 1995 2.51%; 2007 2.68%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.74%; 1995 2.04%; 2007 2.26%

Japan
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 2.14%; 1995 2.71%; 2007 3.44%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 2.13%; 1995 2.89%; 2007 3.40%

China
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 0.57%; 2007 - 1.49%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 NA; 2007 - NA

Germany
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 2.35%; 1995 2.19%; 2007 2.54%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 2.30 %; 1995 2.12%; 2007 - NA

France
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 1.90%; 1995 2.29%; 2007 2.08%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1.53%; 1995 1.98%; 2007 - NA

South Korea
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 2.37%; 2007 3.47%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 2.26%; 2007 - NA

United Kingdom
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 2.38%; 1995 1.94%; 2007 1.79%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.90%; 1995 1.64%; 2007 - NA

Russia
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 0.85%; 2007 1.12%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 NA; 1995 0.60%; 2007 - NA

Canada
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 1.22%; 1995 1.70%; 2007 1.88%
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 1.18; 1995 1.70%; 2007 - NA

Italy
Total R&D/GDP: 1981 0.86; 1995 0.97%; 2007 - NA
Nondefense R&D/GDP: 1981 0.80; 1995 0.97%; 2007 - NA

Image source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2010

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