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Report to the National Science Board

on the

National Science Foundation

Merit Review System

Fiscal Year 1999

NSF Logo

FY 1999 Report on the NSF Merit Review System

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

HIGHLIGHTS
1. Proposals and Awards
Competitively Reviewed Proposals, Awards and Funding Rates
Characteristics of Principal Investigators
Award Amounts
2. Methods of Proposal Review
Review Processes Used at NSF
Reviews and Reviewers
Reviewer Proposal Ratings
NSF Program Officers
Assuring Objectivity in the Merit Review Process
3. Other Issues Related to Merit Review
Committee of Visitors (COV)
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)
Use of Preliminary Proposals
Cost Sharing Policy Revision
Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER)
Accomplishment Based Renewals and Creativity Extensions
Exemptions to the Merit Review Process

FY 1999 Report on the NSF Merit Review System

HIGHLIGHTS

1.   During FY 1999 NSF took action on 28,504 competitively reviewed proposals, and provided funding to 9,112 of them. This resulted in an overall funding rate of 32 percent. These numbers have changed very little during the past five years. In FY 1999, Directorate funding rates ranged from 27 percent to 42 percent.

2.   The funding rates for proposals from minority Principal Investigators (PIs) were below the NSF average in FY 1999, and have been for seven of the past eight years. The number of proposals received yearly from minority PIs has decreased by 5 percent since FY 1992.

3.   Since FY 1992, the funding rates for proposals received from female PIs and male PIs have been similar. (In FY 1999 it was 31 percent for females compared to 32 percent for males.) The number of proposals received from female PIs increased by 19 percent during that seven year period.

4.   There continues to be considerable disparity in the funding rates of proposals from "new PIs" and "prior PIs" (23 percent and 39 percent, respectively, in FY 1999).

5.   The average and median award size increased by 3.3 percent and 3.5 percent respectively. In FY 1999 the average award size for research grants was $92,788 and the median was $73,335. In NSF's FY 2001 Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Performance Plan, a specific goal is to increase the average annualized award size for research projects to $108,000.

6.   Since 1990, the percentage of NSF proposals reviewed by panel-only has increased from 36 to 47 percent, while the use of mail-only review has decreased from 33 to 18 percent. The use of mail-plus-panel review increased from 32 to 35 percent during this period. This may reflect a number of factors, such as the growing number of multidisciplinary proposals received and the declining response rate of mail reviewers.

7.   NSF received a total of more than 246,000 reviews in FY 1999, for an average of 8.3 reviews per proposal. The response rate to mail review requests has decreased to 59 percent from 62 percent in FY 1998.

8.   In FY 1999, over 8,000 proposals with average summary ratings between Very Good and Excellent were declined. The judgment of NSF staff is essential to making this difficult separation between awards and declines. The data also indicate that a large number of potentially fundable proposals are declined each year.

9.   The use of preliminary proposals has increased in frequency over the past several years in NSF programs. In FY 1999, NSF acted on 1,594 preliminary proposals that were logged into the proposal processing system. Of these, NSF encouraged the submission of full proposals in 221 cases and discouraged submission in 1,373 cases.

FY 1999 Report on the NSF Merit Review System

Among the Federal agencies, NSF has a unique mission: to strengthen the overall health of U.S. science and engineering across a broad and expanding frontier. NSF invests in the best ideas from the most capable people, determined by competitive merit review. The merit review system is at the very heart of NSF's selection of the projects through which its mission is achieved. NSF evaluates proposals for research and education projects using two criteria: the intellectual merit of the proposed activity and the broader impacts of the proposed activity on society.

The FY 1999 Report on the NSF Merit Review System responds to a National Science Board (NSB) policy endorsed in 1977 and amended in 1984, requesting that the Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) submit an annual report on the NSF proposal review system. This report provides summary information about levels of proposal and award activity and the process by which proposals are reviewed and awarded.

1.   Proposals and Awards

Competitively Reviewed Proposals, Awards and Funding Rates
During FY 1999, NSF took action on 28,504 competitive, merit reviewed research and education proposals, as shown in Text Figure 1. The number of proposals reviewed annually by NSF has been reasonably stable at around 30,000 proposals since 1995.

NSF funding was awarded to 9,112 of the proposals, resulting in an overall funding rate of 32 percent. The number of awards made each year has varied between approximately 9,000 and 10,000. The overall funding rate has varied little since 1995. However, funding rates among directorates* varied considerably, ranging from 27 percent to 42 percent as shown in Appendix Table 1.

*The term "directorates" as used in this report, refers to NSF's seven programmatic directorates and the Office of Polar Programs.

Text Figure 1
NSF Proposal, Award and Funding Rate Trends

Fiscal Year

  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Proposals 30,700 30,231 30,189 28,318 28,504
Awards 9,563 9,071 9,864 9,279 9,112
Funding Rate 31% 30% 33% 33% 32%

 

In addition to funding proposals that were competitively reviewed during FY 1999, NSF awarded 6,896 continuing grant increments (CGIs) based on proposals which had been competitively reviewed in earlier years. CGIs are funded in annual increments from current year appropriations. The CGI procedure complements the other major type of NSF award instrument - standard grants - where all funds for a multiple year project are obligated in the initial award. NSF policy limits the amount of next year's CGI commitments to 65 percent of a program's current fiscal year operating plan.

Characteristics of Principal Investigators
Trends in funding rate for all PIs, female and minority PIs, and prior and new PIs are shown in Text Figure 2. Proposals, awards, funding rates and trends by PI characteristics are presented in Appendix Table 2.

The differences in funding rates of proposals from female PIs and male PIs have been minor over the past few years. However, the funding rates for proposals from minority PIs have been below the overall NSF funding rate for seven of the past eight years.

The number of proposals received from female Principal Investigators (PIs) has increased by 19% since 1992, as shown in Appendix Table 2. The same has not been true for PIs from minority groups, which has decreased by 5%. During FY 1999, about 19 percent of competitively reviewed proposals were from female PIs down from 20 percent in FY 1998, and five percent were from minority PIs (level with FY 1998.)

Forty-one percent of the competitively reviewed proposals in FY 1999 were from PIs who had never received an NSF award ('new PIs'), up slightly from FY 1998. There continues to be a wide disparity in the funding rates of "new PIs" and "prior PIs" (23 percent and 39 percent, respectively in FY 1999). As indicated in Appendix Table 2, in FY 1999 the number of awards to new PIs decreased from 3,041 to 2,675, or 12 percent.

Text Figure
2

In order to encourage the proposal and award process to be open to new people and new ideas, NSF has established an FY 1999 GPRA performance goal of 30 percent of competitive research grants going to new investigators. The FY 1999 result was 27 percent. The FY 2000/01 goals will continue to be 30%. The Agency is committed to maintaining openness in the system and will strive to increase the percentage of awards to new investigators. NSF will explore whether the pool of new investigators is smaller than in previous years, whether they are submitting fewer proposals, etc., and use this information to design future strategies.

Award Amounts
The median annual award amount (adjusted for multiple year projects) among competitive research awards made during FY 1999 was $73,335, a 3.5 percent increase from FY 1998. The average annualized award amount in FY 1999 was $92,788, an increase of 3.3 percent from FY 1998. The difference between the median and average award amounts reflects the effect of numerous small awards on the median, and a few large awards for centers, facilities, and large systemic initiatives on the average award amount.

Award amounts have been consistent over the past decade, when adjusted to constant dollars as measured by the Consumer Price Index. There are considerable differences among directorates, as shown in Text Figure 3. Data on median and average award amounts from FY 1995-1999 are presented by directorate in Appendix Table 3.

Adequate award size is important both to getting high quality proposals and to ensuring that proposed work can be accomplished as planned. Larger awards also enable scientists and engineers to devote a greater portion of their time to research. In NSF's FY 2001 Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) Performance Plan, a specific goal is to increase the average annualized award size for research projects to $108,000, and the average award duration from 2.7 to 3 years.

Text
Figure 3

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2.  Methods of Proposal Review

Peer Evaluation and Merit Review
The involvement of knowledgeable peers from outside the Foundation in the review of proposals is the keystone of NSF's proposal review system. Their judgements of the extent to which proposals address established criteria are vital for informing NSF staff and influencing funding recommendations. For this reason, NSF's system of proposal review can accurately be characterized as "merit review with peer evaluation."

Review Processes Used at NSF
NSF programs obtain external peer review by two principal methods, mail and panel. In addition to mail and panel reviews, site visits by NSF staff and external peers are often used to review proposals for large facilities, centers, and systemic reform initiatives. NSF program officers are given discretion in the specific use of review methods, subject to supervisory approval. For example, some programs try to manage proposal pressure by requiring submission of preliminary proposals. Review of preliminary proposals varies widely, ranging from non-binding advice from program officers to proposers, to recommendations from external reviewers. The use of preliminary proposals has increased in frequency over the past several years in NSF programs. In FY 1999, NSF acted on 1,594 official preliminary proposals that were logged into the proposal processing system. Of these, NSF encouraged the submission of full proposals in 221 cases and discouraged submission in 1,373 cases.

In "mail-only" reviews, peers are sent proposals and asked to submit written comments to NSF by postal mail, facsimile, electronic mail, or through FastLane, NSF's Web-based system for electronic proposal submission and review. These mail reviews are then used by the NSF program officer directly to support a recommendation for award or decline.

"Panel-only" review refers to the process of soliciting reviews only from those peers who meet in a panel review setting to discuss their reviews and provide advice directly to the program officer. Most programs that use this process provide proposals to panelists and receive their reviews prior to the panel meeting. Other programs provide panelists with access to the proposals at the beginning of the panel meeting, allowing them a period of time during which they prepare their reviews at the meeting.

Many proposals submitted to NSF are reviewed using some combination of these two processes ("mail-plus-panel" review). Those programs that employ the mail-plus-panel review process have developed several different configurations, such as:

The use of various review processes has changed markedly over time. The percentage of NSF proposals reviewed by panel-only has increased from 36 to 47 percent of all proposals since FY 1990. There has been a steady decline in the use of mail-only review from 33 to 18 percent during the past decade. The use of mail-plus-panel review increased from 32 to 35 percent during the past ten years. These trends are shown in Text Figure 4, and the corresponding data are presented in Appendix Table 4. These trends most likely result from the increasing complexity and multidisciplinarity of proposals and the need to better manage the proposal workload.

Directorate-level data on the use of different review processes during FY 1999 are presented in Appendix Table 5. Directorates vary in their use of proposal review methods. Mail-plus-panel review was the most common review process used in the BIO, GEO, and SBE Directorates. Mail-only review was the predominant mode of review in MPS.

Text Figure 4

Panel-only review was the most commonly used method in CISE, ENG and EHR. These trends have major implications for the way NSF conducts its business. For example, as indicated in Text Figure 5, there is a strong relationship between time to decision and type of review. In FY 1999, 65% of all proposals reviewed by panel-only were processed within six months, compared to 54% for mail-plus-panel and 50% for mail-only.

Text Figure 5

Reviews and Reviewers
NSF policy states that each recommendation for final action on a proposal must be accompanied by at least three external reviews, unless the requirement has been waived under special circumstances (see, "Exemptions to the Merit Review Process," below). The total numbers of reviews and the average numbers of reviews per proposal obtained by these different methods are presented in Text Figure 6. Some of this difference is reflected in the fact that panel counts refer to all the participants on a given panel, not just the lead reviewers.

Directorate-level data for FY 1999 are presented in Appendix Table 6. There is considerable variation in the number of reviews per proposal among the directorates, ranging from 15.7 (BIO) to 4.0 (ENG).

Text
Figure 6

A growing number of reviews are submitted electronically through NSF's FastLane system. Of the 246,145 reviews submitted in FY 1999, 74,891, or 30 percent, were submitted through FastLane. In the first three months of FY 2000, 27,040 proposals were submitted through FastLane, compared to 11,648 for the same period in FY 1999. FastLane promises considerable workload reduction for both the reviewer community and the NSF staff.

Diversity of the reviewer pool is an important feature of the NSF merit review system. Reviewers from diverse backgrounds help ensure that a wide range of perspectives are taken into consideration in the review process. NSF emphasizes reviewer diversity through a variety of processes, including use of a large and expanding Foundation-wide reviewer database, explicit policy guidance, mandatory training for all program officers, and directorate-level initiatives.

NSF maintains a central electronic database of about 250,000 reviewers. For proposal decisions in FY 1999, 47,300 of these reviewers were sent one or more proposals for mail review, 30,700 reviewed at least one proposal by mail, and 8,300, reviewers served as panelists. In all, 51,900 individuals either served on a panel, were sent a proposal for mail review, or served in both functions. Of these reviewers, 16 percent were female, 77 percent were male, and for 7 percent the gender was unknown. The data for minorities is not of sufficient quality to publish.

Potential reviewers are identified from a variety of sources including applicant suggestions, references attached to proposals and published papers, and input from mail reviewers, panelists, and visiting scientists. During FY 1999, approximately 29,400 of the 250,000 records now in the reviewer database were either added or updated.

Participation in the peer review process is voluntary. Panelists are reimbursed for expenses; mail reviewers receive no financial compensation. In FY 1999, 59 percent of requests for mail reviews produced responses, which represents a decrease from the 62 percent response rate in FY 1998 and the 64 percent response rate that had been stable since 1991.

Reviewer Proposal Ratings
The NSF merit review system emphasizes reviewer narratives over summary ratings. Summary ratings are but one indicator of reviewer judgment of the proposal quality. The written narratives provided by reviewers, the deliberations by panel members, and the expert opinions provided by program officers are all important components of the merit review system. No one component is allowed to dominate over the others.

The distribution of average summary ratings of reviews for awarded and declined proposals is provided in Text Figure 7. Only those ratings provided for mail-only and mail-plus-panel reviewers have been included. Panel-only reviewers often submit comments without a summary rating. These data indicate considerable overlap among the average reviewer ratings of successful and unsuccessful proposals, most notably in the range of "very good" average ratings. The judgment of NSF staff is essential to making this difficult separation between awards and declines. The data also indicate that a large number of potentially fundable proposals are declined each year.

Text
Figure 7
NOTE:  Excludes reviews Submitted as written comments.

NSF Program Officers
The narrative comments and summary ratings provided by external reviewers are essential inputs in NSF's system of merit review. Once received, these inputs inform the judgment of the program officers who formulate award and decline recommendations to NSF's senior management. These program officers are scientists, engineers, and educators to whom NSF looks for expert judgment and program management. In making recommendations to award or decline proposals, these highly qualified individuals produce and manage a portfolio of awards addressing NSF's strategic goals and related factors such as:

The number of program officers employed by NSF has remained stable at around 400 for the past five years, despite increases in proposal complexity and general workload. Depending on their professional experience, program officers are classified as assistant program director, associate program director, or program director. They can be permanent NSF employees or temporary employees. Some temporary program officers are "on loan" as visiting scientists, engineers, and educators (VSEEs) for up to three years from their host institutions. Others are employed through grants to the home institutions under the terms of the Intergovernmental Personnel Act. The distribution of these program officers among these and other categories is presented in Text Figure 8.

Text Figure 8

Assuring Objectivity in the Merit Review Process
NSF program officers carefully check all proposals for potential conflict-of-interest and select expert outside reviewers with no apparent potential conflicts. All reviewers are instructed to declare potential conflicts. All program officers receive conflicts-of-interest training annually.

NSF policy includes several mechanisms that provide proposers with information on how the review process led to a recommendation, and on procedures for obtaining additional explanations for declinations. These policies help to ensure that NSF's review has been fair and reasonable, and that NSF maintains the openness, quality, and integrity of the merit review process.

Every proposer receives from the NSF program officer a description of the context in which the proposal was reviewed, along with an anonymous verbatim copy of each review that was considered in the review process. A declined PI may ask the cognizant program officer for additional clarification of the decision. If after considering this additional information a PI is not satisfied that the proposal was fairly handled and reasonably reviewed, he or she may request formal reconsideration from the cognizant Assistant Director (AD). This request can be based on the PI's perception of procedural errors or on disagreements over the substantive issues dealt with by reviewers. If the AD upholds the original action, the applicant's institution may request a second reconsideration from the Foundation's Deputy Director (O/DD).

On average, NSF annually declines over 20,000 proposals but receives, on average, only 40-50 requests for formal reconsideration. Most program-level decisions are upheld in the reconsideration process. Out of the 240 requests for formal reconsideration of declined proposals during the past six years, nine decisions have been reversed. The number of requests for formal reconsideration and resulting decisions at both the AD and O/DD levels from FY 1994 through FY 1999 are displayed in Appendix Table 7.

Each program officer's recommendation to award or decline a proposal is subject to a programmatic review by a higher level reviewing official (usually the division director), and an administrative review by a grants officer in the Office of Budget, Finance, and Award Management (BFA). All award recommendations in excess of $1.5 million in any one project year or $6 million over five years must be reviewed by the Director's Review Board (DRB). In FY 1999, awards in excess of a $3 million commitment during a project year, or $15 million over five years, required approval by the National Science Board.

Changes to the NSB threshold were approved by the NSB in July, 1999 and implemented on September 30, 1999, effective Fiscal Year 2000. The new threshold requires NSB approval of awards where the average annual award amount is 1% or more of the awarding directorate's prior year current plan.

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3.   Other Issues Related to Merit Review

Committees of Visitors (COV)
NSF regularly assesses performance of all aspects of the merit review system, comparing its efficiency, effectiveness, customer satisfaction and integrity against similar processes run by other organizations. For example, panels of external experts called Committees of Visitors (COVs) are convened to review the technical and managerial stewardship of NSF programs on a three-year cycle. COVs report on the integrity and efficiency of the processes for proposal review and the quality of results of NSF's programs in the form of outputs and outcomes that appear over time. The recommendations of COVs are reviewed by management and taken into consideration by NSF when evaluating existing programs and future directions for the Foundation.

In FY 1999, NSF's activities were organized into nearly 200 programs. In FY 1999, a total of 18 committees of visitors (COVs) met to conduct reviews of 82 programs, producing a total of 43 COV reports assessing the quality of program performance and outcome results. The number of COV reports is greater than the number of COVs because the COVs were organized into subgroups to produce reports covering more than one program. A list of all programs subject to review by a Committee of Visitors and the fiscal year of the most recent review is provided in Appendix Table 10.

Each COV must operate in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) of 1972. In compliance with FACA regulations, virtually all COVs are established as subcommittees of an existing chartered directorate advisory committee, and the COV report is reviewed and approved by the parent advisory committee. The cognizant assistant director (AD) provides the parent advisory committee with a written response to each COV report. The COV's report and the AD's response are public documents; some have been publicized in the professional literature.

Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)
The merit review system is at the very heart of NSF's selection of the projects through which its GPRA outcome goals are achieved. Hence, in NSF's new GPRA Strategic Plan, "operating a credible, efficient merit review system" is cited as a critical factor for success of the agency. Ensuring a credible, efficient system requires constant attention and openness to change. Two implementation strategies for accomplishing this are: (1) Regularly assess performance of all aspects of the merit review system, comparing its efficiency, effectiveness, customer satisfaction and integrity against similar processes run by other organizations; and (2) Promote the use of both merit review criteria (i.e. intellectual merit and broader impacts) in the evaluation of proposals.

In the FY 1999 GPRA Performance Plan, NSF's investment process goals focus on the means and strategies the Foundation uses to make investment decisions and shape its portfolio of awards in order to achieve its mission and desired outcome goals. Two of these goals (goals 6&7, described below) specifically addressed the use of merit review.

Goal 6:  At least 90% of NSF funds will be allocated to projects reviewed by appropriate peers external to NSF and selected through a merit-based competitive process. (This is a government-wide goal for all federal science, space and technology funding agencies.)

Results:  In FY 1999 NSF exceeded this goal, with 95% of project funds allocated to projects subjected to merit review. This goal will be maintained in FY 2000. NSF expects to exceed this government-wide goal again.

Goal 7:  NSF performance in implementation of the new merit review criteria

Background:  In 1997 the NSB approved new NSF merit review criteria. The two new review criteria are (1) What is the intellectual merit of the proposed activity; and (2) What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? The guidance accompanying the new review criteria state that both criteria must be addressed in the evaluation of a proposal.

NSF's performance goal for the implementation of the new merit review criteria is stated in the alternative (narrative) GPRA format. NSF performance is:

Results:  Largely successful, needs some improvement. For FY 1999, Committees of Visitors (COV's) and Advisory Committees (AC's) used the alternative format to judge how well NSF is implementing the new criteria. In FY 1999, a total of 38 COV reports and 6 AC reports rated NSF programs on their use of the new merit review criteria. NSF was rated successful in achieving this goal in 33 COV reports and 3 AC reports.

One AC report gives NSF a qualified successful rating, and two AC reports rate NSF minimally effective in implementing this goal. In most cases where NSF was not fully successful, it was found that reviewers and applicants were not fully addressing both review criteria. This goal will be maintained for FY 2000.

Recent Progress:  NSF has established guidelines in program announcements requiring applicants and reviewers to address these criteria in proposals and reviews. NSF has recently re-issued guidance to the applicants and reviewers, stressing the importance of using both criteria in the preparation and evaluation of proposals submitted to NSF. NSF is also taking additional steps to ensure that applicants address these criteria when reporting project results.

As part of the FY 1999 Performance Plan, the following language was added to NSF program announcements and included in the Grant Proposal Guide:

PIs should address the following elements in their proposal to provide reviewers with the information necessary to respond fully to the above-described NSF merit review criteria. NSF staff will give these elements careful consideration in making funding decisions.

Integration of Research and Education

One of the principal strategies in support of NSF's goals is to foster integration of research and education through the programs, projects and activities it supports at academic and research institutions. These institutions provide abundant opportunities where individuals may concurrently assume responsibilities as researchers, educators, and students, and where all can engage in joint efforts that infuse education with the excitement of discovery and enrich research through the diversity of learning perspectives.

Integrating Diversity into NSF Programs, Projects, and Activities

Broadening opportunities and enabling the participation of all citizens -- women and men, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities -- are essential to the health and vitality of science and engineering. NSF is committed to this principle of diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and activities it considers and supports.

Use of Preliminary Proposals
The use of preliminary proposals has increased in frequency over the past several years in NSF programs. The intent of preliminary proposals is to limit the burden imposed on proposers, reviewers and NSF staff. Normally, preliminary proposals require only enough information to make fair and reasonable decisions regarding encouragement/discouragement of a full proposal. In FY 1999, NSF acted on 1,594 preliminary proposals that were officially logged into the proposal processing system. Of these, NSF encouraged the submission of full proposals in 221 cases and discouraged submission in 1,373 cases. Until now, there have not been NSF-wide policies for the use, review and tracking of preliminary proposals. However, the establishment of such policies is currently under discussion.

Cost Sharing Policy Revision In accordance with Congressional requirements, NSF requires that each grantee share in the cost of NSF research projects resulting from unsolicited proposals. In addition to the statutory requirements, NSF can require cost sharing when it believes there is tangible benefit to the award recipient(s) (normally beyond the immediate term or scope of the NSF-supported activity).

In FY 1999, NSF revised its policy with respect to cost sharing. It took effect on 7 May 1999, when approved by the National Science Board. The revised policy set forth the following principle for how non-statutory cost sharing may be used as an eligibility factor in the receipt of proposals.

NSF cost sharing requirements beyond the statutory requirement will be clearly stated in the program announcement, solicitation or other mechanism, which generates proposals to the program. NSF-required cost sharing is considered an eligibility rather than review criterion.

This obviously has important implications for the proposal solicitation process and its implementation will be closely monitored. A new system to automate proposal solicitation preparation has helped support the use of clear, consistent language in this area.

Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER)
Since the beginning of FY 1990, the Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) option has permitted program officers throughout the Foundation to make short-term (one to two years), small-scale (less than $50 K) grants without formal external review. Characteristics of activities that can be supported by an SGER award include:

The SGER funding rate is much higher than for regular, competitively reviewed proposals in large part because potential SGER applicants are encouraged to contact an NSF program officer before submitting an SGER proposal to determine its appropriateness for the SGER funding option. As potential SGER applicants have become familiar with this practice, the SGER funding rate has increased from 55 percent in its first year (FY 1990) to 81 percent in FY 1999. Additional details are shown in Text Figure 9.

Text Figure 9
Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER)

Fiscal Years

  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Proposals 330 309 258 228 205 244 302 277
Awards 194 213 185 168 144 194 250 223
Funding Rate (%) 65 69 72 74 70 80 83 81

 

NSF management has been concerned by the decrease in SGER proposal pressure since the activity's inception in 1990. In response, Staff Memorandum O/D 97-06 (dated June 5, 1997) announced a three-year experiment that increases the SGER award limit from $50,000 to $100,000. Program officers were also given permission to grant six-month extensions and supplements of up to $50,000 for extant SGER awards. (EHR and BIO elected not to offer these time extensions or supplements.)

Coincident with these policy changes, the downward trends in SGER proposal pressure and number of awards were reversed in FY 1998. NSF received 244 SGER proposals in FY 1997 and made 194 awards. NSF received 302 SGER proposals in FY 1998 and made 250 awards. Directorates vary in the degree to which their program officers discourage potential proposers from submitting inappropriate ideas as formal SGER proposals. As a result, FY 1998 funding rates for SGER proposals varied among directorates from 47 to 94 percent. Directorate-level data on SGER proposal pressure and funding rates are presented in Appendix Table 8.

The total amount awarded to SGERs in FY 1999 was $12,293,477. The average SGER award amount in FY 1999 was $55,128, a 27 percent increase relative to the FY 1997 average award amount of $43,367. Despite these increases, the total NSF investment in SGERs remains less than one half of one percent of the operating budget for research and education, far below the five percent that program officers may commit to SGER awards. The history of SGER awards by directorate from FY 1997 to FY 1999 is presented in Appendix Table 9.

Accomplishment Based Renewals and Creativity Extensions
In addition to SGERs, NSF program officers may recommend accomplishment based renewals and creativity extensions.

An accomplishment-based renewal is a method that can be used by PIs to submit renewal proposals to NSF. In this type of renewal proposal, the project description is replaced by copies of no more than six reprints of publications resulting from the research supported by NSF (or research supported by other sources that is closely related to the NSF-supported research) during the preceding three- to five-year period. Of the six publications, two preprints (accepted for publication) may be included. In addition, a brief (not to exceed four pages) summary of plans for the proposed support period must be submitted. All other information required for NSF proposal submission remains the same.

A creativity extension is an extension of funding for up to two years for certain research grants. The objective of such extensions is to offer the most creative investigators an extended opportunity to attack adventurous, "high-risk" opportunities in the same general research area, but not necessarily covered by the original/current proposal. Special Creativity Extensions are initiated by the NSF Program Officer based on progress during the first two years of a three-year grant.

In 1999 there were 30 requests for accomplishment based renewals, 15 of which were awarded. There were also 48 creativity based extensions made to existing NSF grants.

Exemptions to the Merit Review Process
Authorized exemptions to the peer review process are listed in NSF Manual 10, Section 122 (Attachment I) and include routine award actions such as continuing grant increments and no-cost extensions. In special circumstances, the Director or designee may waive peer review requirements. Such waivers of peer review were granted 7 times during FY 1999; 5 for OIA, 1 for SBE and 1 for CISE.

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Appendix Table 1
Competitively Reviewed Proposals, Awards and Funding Rates
By Directorate, FY 1994 1998

 

    Fiscal Year Five-year
Total
Five-year
Average
    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
NSF Proposals
30,700 30,231 30,189 28,318 28,504 147,942 29,588
Awards 9,563 9,071 9,864 9,279 9,112 46,889 9,378
Funding Rate 31% 30% 33% 33% 32% 32% 32%
BIO Proposals 5,255 5,676 5,209 4,857 4,711 25,708 5,142
Awards 1,383 1,328 1,416 1,404 1,370 6,901 1,380
Funding Rate 26% 23% 27% 29% 29% 27% 27%
CSE Proposals 2,067 1,931 2,010 2,035 2,255 10,298 2,060
Awards 722 647 631 706 759 3,565 713
Funding Rate 35% 34% 36% 35% 34% 35% 35%
EHR Proposals 4,979 3,732 3,369 3,508 2,827 18,415 3,683
Awards 1,475 1,326 1,191 1,212 809 6,013 1,203
Funding Rate 30% 36% 35% 35% 29% 33% 33%
ENG Proposals 5,740 5,956 6,076 5,589 5,475 28,836 5,767
Awards 1,473 1,383 1,573 1,390 1,483 7,302 1,460
Funding Rate 26% 23% 26% 25% 27% 25% 25%
GEO Proposals 3,421 3,723 3,950 3,317 3,435 17,846 3,569
Awards 1,199 1,161 1,337 1,227 1,312 6,236 1,247
Funding Rate 35% 31% 34% 37% 38% 35% 35%
MPS Proposals 5,203 4,958 5,536 5,265 5,177 25,139 5,228
Awards 1,864 1,817 1,993 1,835 1,891 9,400 1,880
Funding Rate 36% 37% 36% 35% 37% 36% 36%
SBE Proposals 3,490 3,453 3,286 3,091 3,909 17,229 3,446
Awards 1,149 1,137 1,223 1,262 1,190 5,961 1,192
Funding Rate 33% 33% 37% 41% 30% 35% 35%
Other Proposals 545 802 753 656 715 3,471 694
Awards 298 272 400 243 298 1,511 302
Funding Rate 55% 34% 53% 37% 42% 44% 44%

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of December 15, 1999

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Appendix Table 2

Competitively Reviewed Proposals, Awards and Funding Rates
By PI Characteristics, FY 1992-1999

   

Fiscal Year

    1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
All PIs Proposals 30,320 30,003 30,399 30,700 30,231 30,189 28,318 28,504
Awards 10,356 9,148 9,976 9,563 9,071 9,864 9,279 9,112
Funding Rate 34% 33% 33% 31% 30% 33% 33% 32%
Female PIs Proposals 4,448 4,468 4,833 4,945 5,170 5,382 5,603 5,292
Awards 1,519 1,460 1,641 1,582 1,666 1,938 1,920 1,658
Funding Rate 34% 33% 34% 32% 32% 36% 34% 31%
Male PIs Proposals 25,334 25,137 25,023 25,151 25,712 24,448 22,379 22,935
Awards 8,503 7,563 8,018 7,633 7,292 7,793 7,219 7,365
Funding Rate 34% 30% 32% 30% 30% 32% 32% 32%
Minority PIs Proposals 1,481 1,408 1,449 1,521 1,527 1,452 1,377 1,418
Awards 469 391 422 422 472 459 408 430
Funding Rate 32% 28% 29% 28% 31% 32% 30% 30%
New PIs Proposals 14,988 14,284 14,566 14,192 13,630 13,267 12,204 11,831
Awards 3,735 3,025 3,598 3,367 3,021 3,264 3,041 2,675
Funding Rate 25% 21% 25% 24% 22% 25% 25% 23%
Prior PIs Proposals 15,332 15,719 15,833 16,508 16,601 16,922 16,114 16,673
Awards 6,621 6,123 6,378 6,196 6,050 6,600 6,238 6,437
Funding Rate 43% 39% 40% 38% 36% 39% 39% 39%

Notes:
"Competitively reviewed" proposals and awards are actions for research, education and training processed through NSF's merit review system each year.
"Gender" is based on self-reported information from the PI's most recent proposal.
"Minority" is based on the PI's ethnic/racial status as reported to NSF on the most recent proposal. PIs can decline to report their ethnic/racial status. Includes American Indian, Alaskan Native, Black, Hispanic, and Pacific Islander and excludes Asian and White-Not of Hispanic Origin.

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of December 15, 1999

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 3

Median and Average Award Amounts by Directorate
Research Grants
FY 1995 - 1999

    Fiscal Year
    1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
NSF Median $59,468 $61,744 $67,000 $70,854 $73,335
Average $72,798 $75,613 $82,256 $89,854 $92,788
BIO Median $76,667 $76,604 $85,819 $90,000 $94,078
Average $82,960 $84,415 $89,670 $103,327 $125,901
CSE Median $55,395 $57,788 $74,450 $75,000 $82,850
Average $76,283 $86,721 $93,634 $99,014 $108,661
ENG Median $62,087 $68,870 $70,000 $473,122 $73,547
Average $69,433 $73,168 $77,864 $86,879 $84,594
GEO Median $61,821 $62,635 $66,516 $69,468 $66,796
Average $75,859 $80,467 $80,182 $86,747 $85,609
MPS Median $55,833 $60,000 $65,000 $73,670 $77,139
Average $80,487 $82,000 $91,409 $94,559 $93,591
SBE Median $33,973 $27,471 $32,278 $37,387 $39,493
Average $42,068 $37,404 $46,673 $51,807 $49,481
O/D Median $61,466 $76,358 $75,634 $85,575 $81,096
Average $80,826 $95,434 $103,259 $111,461 $112,671

 

Note:  Median and average are based on competitively reviewed research awards.
Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of February 7, 2000.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 4

Methods of NSF Proposal Review
FY 1990 - 1999

  Total
Proposals
Mail + Panel Mail-Only Panel-Only
FY Proposals Percent Proposals Percent Proposals Percent
   1999 29,564 10,324 35% 5,292 18% 13,948 47%
1998 28,492 9,883 35% 5,890 21% 12,719 45%
1997 29,467 10,334 35% 6,718 23% 12,415 42%
1996 29,595 9,853 33% 6,853 23% 12,889 44%
1995 30,096 9,844 33% 7,540 25% 12,712 42%
1994 29,869 8,499 28% 7,582 25% 13,788 46%
1993 28,956 8,401 29% 7,949 27% 12,606 44%
1992 28,938 8,484 29% 8,970 31% 11,484 40%
1991 27,945 8,602 31% 8,307 30% 11,036 39%
1990 27,987 8,834 32% 9,099 33% 10,054 36%

 

Note:  "O/D" includes the Office of Polar Programs and the Office of Integrative Activities. Panel-Only includes cases where panelist was mailed proposal for review prior to panel. FY
1999 numbers includes 1,570 reviewed preproposals.

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of December 15, 1999.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 5

Methods of NSF Proposal Review
By Directorate, FY 1999

  Total
Proposals
Mail + Panel Mail-Only Panel-Only
Directorate Proposals Percent Proposals Percent Proposals Percent
NSF 29,564 10,324 35% 5,292 18% 13,948 47%
BIO 4,622 3,398 74% 99 2% 1,125 24%
CSE 2,287 412 18% 158 7% 1,717 75%
EHR 3,364 111 3% 103 3% 3,150 94%
ENG 5,626 456 8% 813 14% 4,357 77%
GEO 3,401 2,457 72% 649 19% 295 9%
MPS 5,136 1,230 24% 2,521 49% 1,385 27%
SBE 3,880 1,853 48% 730 19% 1,297 33%
Other 1,248 407 33% 219 18% 622 50%

 

Note:  "Other" includes the Office of Polar Programs and the Office of Integrative Activities. Panel-Only includes cases where panelist was mailed proposal for review prior to panel. FY 1999 numbers includes 1,570 reviewed preproposals.

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of December 15,1999.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 6

Average Number of Reviews per Proposal
By Method and Directorate, FY 1999

  Methods of Review
Directorate All Methods Mail+Panel Mail-Only Panel-Only
BIO Reviews 72,736 57,157 474 15,105
Proposals 4,622 3,398 99 1,125
Rev/Prop 15.7 16.8 4.8 13.4
CSE Reviews 11,727 2,635 645 8,447
Proposals 2,287 412 158 1,717
Rev/Prop 5.1 6.4 4.1 4.9
EHR Reviews 19,664 777 428 18,459
Proposals 3,364 111 103 3,150
Rev/Prop 5.8 7.0 4.2 5.9
ENG Reviews 22,521 2,506 3,439 16,576
Proposals 5,626 456 813 4,357
Rev/Prop 4.0 5.5 4.2 3.8
GEO Reviews 36,709 31,042 3,410 2,257
Proposals 3,401 2,457 649 295
Rev/Prop 10.8 12.6 5.3 7.7
MPS Reviews 37,306 12,266 12,052 12,988
Proposals 5,136 1,230 2,521 1,385
Rev/Prop 7.3 10.0 4.8 9.4
SBE Reviews 37,883 21,865 2,722 13,296
Proposals 3,880 1,853 730 1,297
Rev/Prop 9.8 11.8 3.7 10.3
O/D Reviews 7,599 3,821 992 2,786
Proposals 1,248 407 219 622
Rev/Prop 6.1 9.4 4.5 4.5

 

Notes:
Peers participating as both a mail and panel reviewer for the same proposal are counted as one review in this table.
Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of December 15, 1999.

FY 1999 numbers includes 1,570 reviewed preproposals, 1,554 were reviewed by panel and 16 by mail.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 7

Requests for Formal Reconsideration of Declined Proposals
By Directorate, FY 1994 - 1999

  Fiscal Year
  1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
First Level Reviews (by Assistant Directors):
NSF Requests 28 38 46 39 53 36
- Upheld 30 37 45 34 48 34
- Reversed 0 1 1 4 3 0
BIO Requests 5 4 3 4 6 4
- Upheld 5 4 3 2 6 4
- Reversed 0 0 0 2 0 0
CSE Requests 0 3 1 2 3 1
- Upheld 0 3 1 2 3 1
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0
EHR Requests 4 3 8 4 6 3
- Upheld 6 3 8 4 5 3
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 1 0
ENG Requests 6 3 5 9 5 4
- Upheld 6 3 5 9 4 4
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0
GEO Requests 5 5 4 2 2 2
- Upheld 5 5 4 2 2 1
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0
MPS Requests 8 18 20 17 25 20
- Upheld 8 17 19 15 22 19
- Reversed 0 1 1 2 2 0
SBE Requests 0 2 1 2 3 0
- Upheld 0 2 1 1 3 1
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other Requests 0 0 4 0 0 0
- Upheld 0 0 4 0 0 0
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0
Second Level Reviews (by Deputy Director):
O/DD Requests 8 11 7 4 3 2
- Upheld 9 10 7 4 3 1
- Reversed 0 0 0 0 0 0

 

Notes:  The number of decisions (upheld or reversed) may not equal the number of requests in each year due to carryover of pending reconsideration request.

Source:  Office of the Director

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 8

Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER)
Proposals, Awards and Funding Rates
By Directorate, FY 1992-1999

  Fiscal Year Eight-year
Total
Eight-year
Average
  1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
NSF Proposals 300 309 258 228 205 244 302 277 2,123 265
Awards 194 213 185 168 144 194 250 223 1,571 196
Funding Rate 65% 69% 72% 74% 70% 80% 83% 81% 74% 74%
BIO Proposals 81 80 63 56 50 44 59 48 481 60
Awards 39 57 39 40 28 29 48 36 316 40
Funding Rate 48% 71% 62% 71% 56% 66% 81% 75% 66% 66%
CSE Proposals 14 15 11 18 22 23 21 24 148 19
Awards 9 11 9 18 19 23 20 22 131 16
Funding Rate 63% 73% 82% 100% 86% 100% 95% 92% 89% 89%
EHR Proposals 1 9 5 5 1 7 9 15 52 7
Awards 1 9 5 5 1 6 8 14 49 6
Funding Rate 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 86% 89% 93% 94% 94%
ENG Proposals 91 94 83 65 59 68 95 89 644 81
Awards 69 67 61 52 45 57 72 75 498 62
Funding Rate 76% 71% 73% 80% 76% 84% 76% 84% 77% 77%
GEO Proposals 44 41 36 28 27 40 56 44 316 40
Awards 37 37 33 22 23 38 54 40 284 36
Funding Rate 84% 90% 92% 79% 85% 95% 96% 91% 90% 90%
MPS Proposals 46 44 42 35 27 32 17 33 2,123 265
Awards 21 17 25 16 12 13 10 16 130 16
Funding Rate 46% 39% 60% 46% 44% 41% 59% 48% 47% 47%
SBE Proposals 21 28 12 15 14 19 30 16 155 19
Awards 16 17 8 9 11 18 25 12 116 15
Funding Rate 76% 61% 67% 60% 79% 95% 83% 75% 75% 75%
OPP Proposals 2 7 11 11 6 11 15 8 71 9
Awards 2 7 10 11 6 10 13 8 67 8
Funding Rate 100% 100% 91% 100% 100% 91% 87% 100% 94% 94%

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of January 14, 2000.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 9

Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER)
Funding Trends by Directorate, FY 1997 - 1999

  Fiscal Year Three-year
Total
  1997 1998 1999
NSF Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
BIO Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
CSE Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
EHR Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
ENG Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
GEO Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
MPS Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
SBE Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515
O/D Total $ $8,413,152 $12,320,200 $12,293,477 $33,026,829
Awards 194 250 223 667
Average $ $43,367 $49,281 $55,128 $49,515

Source:  NSF Enterprise Information System, as of January 14, 2000.

Table of Contents


Appendix Table 10

Committee of Visitors Meetings
By Directorate

(COV meetings held during FY 1999 are highlighted in bold font)

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Biological Sciences  
     Biological Infrastructure  
            Instrumentation & Related Activities 1998
            Research Resources (new) 1999
            Training (new) 1999
     Environmental Biology  
            Ecological Studies 1999
            Systematic & Population Biology 1999
     Integrative Biology & Neuroscience  
            Neuroscience 1999
            Developmental Mechanisms 1997
            Physiology & Ethology 1998
      Molecular & Cellular Biosciences  
            Biomolecular Structure & Function 1998
            Biomolecular Processes 1998
            Cell Biology 1998
            Genetics 1999

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Computer and Information Science and Engineering  
     Advanced Computational Infrastructure and Research  
            Advanced Computational Research 1998
            Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure 1999
     Computer-Communication Research  
            Communications 1998
            Computer Systems Architecture 1996
            Design Automation 1995
            Numeric, Symbolic, and Geometric Computation 1996
            Operating Systems and Compilers 1996
            Signal Processing Systems 1996
            Software Engineering and Languages 1996
            Theory of Computing 1996
     Information and Intelligent Systems  
            Computation and Social Systems 1999
            Human Computer Interaction 1999
            Knowledge and Cognitive Systems 1999
            Robotics & Human Augmentation 1999
            Information and Data Management 1999
     Advanced Networking Infrastructure and Research (was NSFNET)  
            Networking Research 1998
            Special Projects in Networking Research (new in 1998)  
            Advanced Networking Infrastructure 1996
     Experimental and Integrative Activities (new in 1998)  
            Experimental Partnerships (new in 98) 1996
            Research Infrastructure 1995
            Advanced Distributed Resources for Experiments (new in 1998)  
            Minority Institutional Infrastructure 1995
            Digital Government (new in 1998)  
            Instrumentation Grants for Research 1999
            Educational Innovation 1995
            Next Generation Software (new in 1998)  

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Education and Human Resources  
     Educational Systemic Reform  
            Statewide Systemic Initiatives 1997
            Urban Systemic Initiatives 1999
            Rural Systemic Initiatives 1997
     EPSCoR 1996
     Elementary, Secondary & Informal Education  
            Informal Science Education 1998
            Teacher Enhancement 1996
            Instructional Material Development 1997
     Undergraduate Education  
            Teacher Preparation 1997
            Advanced Technological Education 1997
            Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (new in 1997)  
     Graduate Education  
            Graduate Research Fellowships 1999
            NATO Postdoctorate Fellowships 1997
            Presidential Fellowships for Science, Math, Engineering and
                Technology Education (new in 1997)
 
            Graduate Research Traineeship (phases out in 2000) 1997
     Human Resource Development  
            Alliances for Minority Participation 1998
            Centers for Research Excellence In Science and Technology 1997
            Programs for Women & Girls 1997
            Programs for Persons with Disabilities 1997
            Minority Graduate Education (new in 1998)  
            Historically Black Colleges and Universities (new in 1998)  
            Comprehensive Partnerships for Math and Science Achievements 1998
     Research, Evaluation & Communication  
            Research on Education Policy & Practice (new in 1996)  
            Evaluation 1997

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Engineering  
     Bioengineering & Environmental Systems  
            Bioengineering 1999
            Environmental and Ocean Systems 1999
     Civil and Mechanical Systems  
            Control/Mechanics/Materials 1999
            Construction/Geotechnology/Structures 1999
            Hazard Reduction 1999
     Chemical & Transport Systems  
            Chemical Reaction Processes 1997
            Interfacial, Transport & Separation Processes 1997
            Fluid, Particulate & Hydraulic Systems 1997
            Thermal Systems 1997
     Design, Manufacture & Industrial Innovation  
            Operations Research & Production Systems 1996
            Design & Integration Engineering 1997
            Manufacturing Processes & Equipment 1998
            Small Business Innovation Research 1998
            Innovation and Organizational Change 1996
            Special Studies & Analyses 1996
            Grant Opportunities for Academic Liaison with Industry 1996
            Small Business Technology Transfer 1998
     Electrical & Communications Systems  
            Electronics, Photonics and Device Technologies 1996
            Control, Networks, and Computational Intelligence 1996
            Integrative Systems 1996
            Resource and Infrastructure 1996
     Engineering, Education & Centers  
            Engineering Education 1998
            Human Resource Development 1998
            Engineering Research Centers 1998
            Industry/Univ. Cooperative Research Centers 1998

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Geosciences  
     Atmospheric Sciences  
            - Lower Atmosphere Research  
            Atmospheric Chemistry 1998
            Climate Dynamics 1998
            Meoscale Dynamic Meteorology 1998
            Large-scale Dynamic Meteorology 1998
            Physical Meteorology 1998
            Paleoclimate 1998
            - Upper Atmosphere Research  
            Magnetospheric Physics 1999
            Aeronomy 1999
            Upper Atmospheric Research Facilities 1999
            Solar Terrestrial Research 1999
        UCAR and Lower Atmospheric Facilities Oversight (includes NCAR) 1997
     Earth Sciences  
            - Research Grants  
           Tectonics 1998
            Geology & Paleontology 1998
            Hydrological Sciences 1998
            Petrology & Geochemistry 1998
            - Special Projects  
            Education & Human Resources 1997
            Instrumentation & Facilities 1997
            Continental Dynamics 1998
            Geophysics 1998
      Ocean Sciences  
            - Oceanographic Centers & Facilities  
            Ship Operations 1994
            Oceanographic Facilities 1994
            Ocean Drilling 1994
            Oceanographic Instrumentation & Technical Services 1994
           - Ocean Science Research  
            Marine Geology & Geophysics 1998
            Biological Oceanography 1998
            Chemical Oceanography 1998
            Physical Oceanography 1998
            Oceanographic Technology & Interdisciplinary Coordination 1998

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Mathematical and Physical Sciences  
     Astronomical Sciences  
            Planetary Astronomy 1999
            Stellar Astronomy & Astrophysics 1999
            Galactic Astronomy 1999
            Education, Human Resources and Special Programs 1999
            Gemini Telescopes Project 1999
            National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) 1999
            Advanced Technologies & Instrumentation 1999
            National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 1999
            National Astronomy & Ionosphere Center (NAIC) 1999
            University Radio Facilities 1999
            Electromagnetic Spectrum Management 1999
      Chemistry  
            Special Projects 1998
            Chemical Instrumentation 1998
            Organic & Macromolecular Chemistry 1998
            Organic Dynamics 1998
            Organic Synthesis 1998
            Physical Chemistry 1998
            Theoretical and Computational 1998
            Experimental Physical Chemistry 1998
            Inorganic, Bioinorganic & Organometallic Chemistry 1998
            Analytical & Surface Chemistry 1998
     Materials Research  
            Condensed Matter Physics 1999
            Materials Theory 1999
            Metals, Ceramics & Electronic Materials 1999
            Solid-State Chemistry & Polymers 1999
            National Facilities & Instrumentation 1999
            Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers 1999
     Mathematical Sciences  
            Applied Mathematics 1998
            Infrastructure 1998
            Geometric Analysis, Topology and Foundations 1998
            Analysis 1998
            Algebra & Number Theory 1998
            Statistics & Probability 1998
     Physics  
            Atomic, Molecular and Optical and Plasma Physics 1997
            Elementary Particle Physics 1997
            Theoretical Physics 1997
            Nuclear Physics 1997
            Gravitational Physics 1997

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Social, Behavioral and Economic Science  
     International Programs 1999
     Social, Behavioral & Economic Research  
            - Economic, Decision & Mgt. Sciences Cluster  
            Economics 1997
            Decision, Risk & Management Sciences 1997
            Innovation and Organizational Change (new in 1998)  
            - Anthropology & Geographic Sciences Cluster  
            Cultural Anthropology 1999
            Physical Anthropology 1999
            Archeology 1999
            Geography 1999
            - Social & Political Science Cluster  
            Sociology 1996
            Political Science 1997
            Law & Social Science 1995
            - Infrastructure, Methods & Science Studies Cluster  
            Ethics & Values Studies 1996
            Science & Technology Studies 1996
            Methodology, Measurement & Statistics 1996
            - Cognitive, Psych. & Language Sci. Cluster  
            Linguistics 1999
            Human Cognition & Perception 1999
            Social Psychology 1999

 

Directorate
     Division
            Programs
Fiscal Year
of Most
Recent COV
Office of Polar Programs  
     Polar Research Support  
            Polar Operations 1998
            Science Support 1998
            Waste Management 1998
            Facilities 1998
            Safety & Health 1998
     Antarctic Sciences  
            Aeronomy and Astrophysics 1997
            Biology and Medicine 1997
            Geology and Geophysics 1997
            Glaciology 1997
            Ocean and Climate Systems 1997
     Arctic Sciences  
            System Sciences 1997
            Natural Sciences 1997
            Social Sciences 1997

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