Cognitive skills of 2-year olds are directly related to socioeconomic status (SES).
Cognitive skills of 2-year-olds vary by race.
- 2-year-olds in the lowest SES category score below those in the middle and highest categories for all five cognitive skills measured.
- The largest difference in cognitive skills between 2-year-olds in the lowest and highest SES categories is in expressive vocabulary (24 percentage points).
- Smaller percentages of black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native 2-year-olds demonstrated proficiency in all five cognitive skills compared to white or Asian 2-year-olds.
- American Indian 2-year-olds consistently score lower than 2-year-olds from other groups on all cognitive tests.