- S&E = science and engineering. S&T = S&E plus technicians.
- Physical scientists = chemists, physicists, astronomers, and earth/ocean/atmospheric scientists.
The S&E workforce has shown sustained growth for more than half a century.
- The number of workers in S&E occupations grew from about 182,000 in 1950 to nearly 5.5 million in 2009. This represents an average annual growth rate of 5.9%, much greater than the 1.2% growth rate for the total workforce older than age 18 during this period.
- Workforce growth in S&E occupations from 2000 to 2009 was slower than in the two preceding decades. However, at 1.4% annually, it exceeded the 0.2% rate for the general workforce.