Budget function: One of 20 broad categories that classify activities covered by the federal budget, including R&D. An agency’s activities are not necessarily included in only one function. Instead, the programs of one agency typically are distributed across functions, and each function often includes programs from multiple agencies.
Commerce: United States Department of Commerce
DoD: United States Department of Defense
DOE: United States Department of Energy
EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency
FFRDC: Federally Funded Research and Development Center
G7: Group of Seven, the world’s largest industrial market economies: the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Britain, Italy and Canada
GDP: Gross Domestic Product. The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country within a given period of time
HHS: United States Department of Health and Human Services
High-technology manufacturing industries: Five manufacturing industries, identified by OECD, that have particularly strong linkages to science and technology, consisting of aerospace, communications equipment, office machinery and computers, pharmaceuticals, and scientific instruments.
Homeland Security: United States Department of Homeland Security
ipIQ: Private company specializing in patent analysis,
Knowledge-intensive services:Five service industries, identified by OECD, that have particularly strong linkages to science and technology, consisting of business, financial, communications, education, and health services.
Market-oriented knowledge-intensive services: Those knowledge-intensive service industries that are commercially oriented, consisting of business, financial, and communications services
NASA: United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCES: National Center for Education Statistics, United States Department of Education
NIH: United States National Institutes of Health
NSB: National Science Board (Board)
NSF: National Science Foundation
OECD: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Member countries include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States
Productivity: The efficiency with which resources are employed within an economy or industry, measured as labor productivity. Labor productivity is measured by change in GDP or output per unit of labor.
PPP: Purchasing Power Parities. The exchange rate required to purchase an equivalent market basket of goods.
R&D: Research and Development
S&E: Science and Engineering
S&T: Science and Technology
SEI: Science and Engineering Indicators
SRS: Division of Science Resource Statistics, National Science Foundation
Transportation: United States Department of Transportation
Triadic patents: Triadic patent families refer to inventions that have sought patent protection in the world’s three largest markets: the United States, the EU, and Japan.
UIS: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USPTO: United States Patent and Trademark Office
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
Value-added revenue: Gross revenue minus the cost of purchased domestic and foreign inputs and materials.