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Glossary and Key to Acronyms

Applied research.  Systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding to meet a specific, recognized need.

ARRA.  American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Asia-8.  China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand.

Basic research.  Systematic study to gain more comprehensive knowledge or understanding of the subject under study without specific applications in mind.

Development.  Systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including the design and development of prototypes and processes.

DOD.  Department of Defense.

DOE.  Department of Energy.

GDP.  Gross domestic product. The market value of all final goods and services produced within a country within a given period of time.

EU-20.  The 20 European Union member nations with substantial high technology manufacturing: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

EU-27.  The 27 member nations of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

HHS.  Department of Health and Human Services.

High technology manufacturing.  Manufacturing in five industries, identified by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, that have particularly strong linkages to science and technology: aerospace, communications and semiconductors, computers and office machinery, pharmaceuticals, and scientific instruments.

Knowledge-intensive economy.  Economies in which research, its commercial exploitation, and intellectual work play a substantial role.

Majority-owned affiliate.  Affiliates in which the ownership stake of parent companies exceeds 50%.

MNC.  Multinational company.

NASA.  National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

NSB.  National Science Board.

NSF.  National Science Foundation.

R&D.  Research and development.

R&D intensity.  R&D as a proportion of gross domestic product.

S&E.  Science and engineering.

S&T.  Science and technology.

SEI.  Science and Engineering Indicators.

SRS.  Division of Science Resources Statistics, National Science Foundation.

Value-added.  Sales minus the cost of purchased domestic and foreign inputs and materials.

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