R&D totals in these tables are given in both outlays and obligations. The R&D obligation data are further categorized according to character of work (basic research, applied research, and development), performer, field of science or engineering (for research but not for development), and Federal R&D funding by State. Obligations for research performance at universities and colleges by fields of science or engineering are also shown, as are R&D plant data.
The amounts reported for each year are expressed in obligations or outlays incurred, or expected to be incurred, in that year, regardless of when the funds may have been authorized, appropriated, or received by an agency, and regardless of whether the funds are identified in an agency's budget specifically for research, development, or R&D plant.
Data for 1992 are actual, representing completed transactions. Data for 1993 and 1994 are estimated because they do not represent final actions. The Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development was conducted during the third quarter of fiscal year 1993. The amounts reported for 1993 reflect congressional appropriation actions as of that period, as well as apportionment and reprogramming decisions as of that time. Data for 1994 represent administration budget proposals that had not been acted on. Authorization, appropriation, deferral, and apportionment actions that were completed after these data were collected will be reflected in later surveys of this series.
Accuracy of the data depends in part on the judgment of the respondent. Since many agency R&D programs are not identified as budget-line items, agency officials must identify R&D and R&D plant activities within broader programs. Over the years personnel of the participating agencies have developed increasing skill and consistency in meeting the survey requirements, and their interaction with the National Science Foundation staff has considerably increased the reliability of the data.
Inquiries relating to Federal Funds for Research and Development Detailed Historical Tables: Fiscal Years 1956-1994 should be directed to Ronald L. Meeks, Science and Engineering Activities Program, Division of Science Resources Studies, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230. Telephone: (703) 306-1772. Internet: email@example.com.