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Cover Credits

The cover design for Globalization of Science and Engineering Research is based on two images of turbulence. The upper image is a computer-simulated visualization of Mach 1 homogeneous turbulence, which also is the featured image on the cover of Science and Engineering Indicators 2010. (Credit: Paul Woodward, Laboratory for Computational Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota.) The lower picture is a photograph (Credit: Patrick Cullis, NSF) capturing the aurora borealis over the South Pole Station, a natural phenomenon also reflecting turbulence. Turbulence and plasma waves in Earth’s magnetosphere produce electromagnetic structures that accelerate charged particles. These highly energized particles enter the upper atmosphere and interact with neutral gases at altitudes of approximately 100 kilometers above Earth’s surface, generating rapidly changing streamers of light called the aurora. (The cover design is by James Caras, NSF.)


Globalization of Science and Engineering Research   Arlington, VA (NSB 10-03) | January 2010