The Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS) of the National Science Foundation publishes the report, National Patterns of R&D Resources. This report describes and analyzes current patterns of research and development (R&D) in the United States, in relation to the historical record and the reported R&D levels of other industrialized countries. Prior to the report's publication, SRS makes available "early release tables" and "data update tables" (like those provided below) thereby giving researchers early access to the most recent data which they may need for their research.
Please Note: For trend comparisons, use only the historical data reported here. These tables incorporate the latest revisions to prior-year data, including recently revised estimates of R&D performance by nonprofit organizations. Do not use data published earlier.
Tables 1-6 and Table D below contain NSF's most current information to date regarding R&D expenditures in the U.S. The expenditure levels reported are broken out by:
|Source of Funds||Federal government, nonfederal government, industry, academia, and nonprofit institutions|
|R&D performer||Federal government, industry, academia, nonprofit institutions, and federally-funded research and development centers|
|Character of work||Basic research, applied research, and development|
|Type of monetary unit||Current dollars or constant 1996 dollars|
|Geographic location||Each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia|
For the first four of these categories, annual data are provided that date back to the 1950s, which are amenable to time-series analysis of the economic history of R&D in the U.S. Similarly, the geographic data, which cover all odd-numbered years from 1987 to 1997 plus the year 1998, are amenable to both time series and cross-sectional analysis.
Table 7 supplies international R&D data pertaining to the major industrialized "group of seven" countries (the U.S., Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Canada). These data include total R&D and non-defense R&D in constant 1996 dollars (by purchasing power parity), and as a percent of national GDP.
Researchers may wish to examine the previous report National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1998 and forthcoming National Patterns reports for more extensive and updated analyses of historical R&D trends, for more detailed breakdowns of R&D expenditure (such as by academic fields of study or sector of private industry), or for explanations of methodological and technical aspects of how the R&D statistics have been obtained and compiled. As explained in the technical notes of these reports, the data presented here on R&D expenditures derive from information obtained from four NSF/SRS surveys: Research and Development in Industry: 1999; Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1999; Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1999, 2000, and 2001; and Survey of R&D Funding & Performance by Nonprofit Organizations.
Note that R&D expenditure levels from Federal sources, presented here based on performer-reported surveys, differ from the Federal R&D funding totals reported by the Federal agencies that provide those funds. The difference in the Federal R&D totals appear to be concentrated in the funding of industry by the Department of Defense. See National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1998 and the forthcoming National Patterns reports for detailed discussion and documentation of these differences.
The first eight tables (1A, 1B, 2A, ..., 4B) are symmetrically arranged to allow for direct comparisons of R&D data organized in two ways: (1) by performer first and then by source, or (2) by source first and then by performer. The first case effectively asks, "what type of organization performs the R&D, and for that type of performer, from what kinds of organizations does it receive its funding?" The second case effectively asks, "what type of organization provides funding for R&D, and to which kinds of performers does it provide those funds?"
For example, the upper left-hand corners of 1A and 1B are displayed below, which represent cases 1 and 2, respectively. In table 1A, the column for the Federal Government as a performer, as defined in the first row, is not subdivided because the Federal Government is the only source of funds for Federal intramural research. Industry performance, in contrast, is subdivided by the two main sources of industrial performance: the Federal Government and industry's own funds.
In table 1B, on the other hand, the Federal Government as a source defines a column in the first row, which is subdivided into several columns in the second row for the performers that receive those funds, such as the Federal Government itself and industry.
The third row of each table provides the column number for table D, containing annual historical data from 1953 to 2000 (where data for 1999 and 2000 are preliminary). Note, for instance, that, in table 1A, industrial performance that is funded by Federal support is designated as column "" in table D. In table 1B, Federal support that is directed to industry performers is also designated as column "" because these two concepts are identically equal, and thus, they are represented by the same column in table D.
The A and B parts of tables 2, 3, and 4 are structured in exactly the same manner as the A and B parts of table 1, but tables 2, 3, and 4 refer to basic research, applied research, and development, respectively, rather than total R&D (the sum of those three components).
|1A||National expenditures for R&D, by performing sector and sources of funding: 1993-2000||.xls|
|1B||National expenditures for R&D, from funding sectors to performing sectors: 1993-2000||.xls|
|2A||National expenditures for basic research, by performing sector and sources of funding: 1993-2000||.xls|
|2B||National expenditures for basic research, from funding sectors to performing sectors: 1993-2000||.xls|
|3A||National expenditures for applied research, by performing sector and sources of funding: 1993-2000||.xls|
|3B||National expenditures for applied research, from funding sectors to performing sectors: 1993-2000||.xls|
|4A||National expenditures for development, by performing sector and sources of funding: 1993-2000||.xls|
|4B||National expenditures for development, from funding sectors to performing sectors: 1993-2000||.xls|
|5||Gross domestic product and R&D (Federally-funded, nonfederal, and total): Comparative measures of growth: 1993-2000||.xls|
|6||State expenditures for R&D, by performing sector and sources of funding: 1987-98||.xls|
|7||International R&D expenditures (total and non-defense) in constant dollars and as a percentage of GDP: 1981-99||.xls|
|D||Historical database for National Patterns: Columns 1-175||.xls|