Strategic Research Partnerships: Proceedings from an NSF Workshop

Appendix A
Methodological Details

Strategic Research Alliances and 360 Degree Bibliometric Indicators
Diana Hicks and Francis Narin

The linkage data were constructed from the U.S. patent database and CHI's Science Literature Indicator's Database developed for NSF's Science Indicators and derived from the Science Citation Index. All patent data including cited patents and papers runs from 1988 to 1999. All paper data runs from 1986 to 1997. All counts are whole counts.

It was important to remove from the non-Chiron side of every citation relationship any document listing a Chiron address. This serves the obvious purpose of eliminating self-citations. It also eliminates a more subtle problem. Some of Chiron's self citations are co-authored/invented. If self-citations were not removed, institutions that, for example, co-authored with Chiron, would gain in the Chiron pub right-facing arrow pub counts from the self-cited publications. This is a form of double counting. In other words, institutions with a co-authoring relationship can seem to have an enhanced cited relationship because the cited relationship will be inflated by self-citations to the co-authored publications. With the co-authored papers removed from the other dimensions, the dimensions are truly independent.

The publishing and patenting figures come from different databases, which are in some ways incompatible at the moment. Most importantly, the paper database contains variant-unified institutional addresses for the largest publishing American institutions. The patent database contains variant-unified and parent-subsidiary unified institutional identifications for the largest 1,300 patenting international and American organizations in the U.S. patent system. A cross-database name unification was performed in which institutions were aggregated to make the institutional identifications identical with those in the patents. For example, universities patent under the name of the university system. So for example, University of California Berkeley and University of California Santa Barbara do not appear in the lists, but the University of California is by far the largest publishing institution followed US Dept. of Health and Human Services (under whose name NIH patents).

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