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women and minorities
Introduction Chapter 1: Precollege Education Chapter 2: Undergraduate Enrollment Chapter 3: Undergraduate Degrees Chapter 4: Graduate Enrollment Chapter 5: Graduate Degrees Chapter 6: Employment Technical Notes Appendix Tables
Chapter Contents:
Transition to graduate school
Enrollment trends
Field of study
Enrollment status
Sources of financial support
Debt at graduation
Appendix Tables
List of Figures
Presentation Slides

Graduate Enrollment

Transition to graduate school

Students with disabilities

Women  top of page

Longitudinal data show that there is no more attrition for female bachelor's degree recipients—regardless of degree field—than for male between baccalaureate receipt and graduate enrollment. Among S&E bachelor's degree recipients, women are more likely than men to pursue additional study. In 1999, 33 percent of the women and 28 percent of the men who had received an S&E baccalaureate in academic year 1996/97 or 1997/98 were enrolled in an educational program either full or part time. (See text table 4-1 text table.)

Women are, however, a smaller percentage of S&E graduate students than of S&E bachelor's degree recipients. As noted in the previous chapter, women received 49 percent of all baccalaureates awarded in S&E fields in 1998. In 1999, women constituted 45 percent of U.S. citizen and permanent resident graduate students in S&E fields. This difference in participation in bachelor's versus graduate study is particularly evident in certain S&E fields, notably the physical sciences and mathematics. (See text table 4-2 text table.) Within other broad S&E fields, women account for similar percentages of total bachelor's recipients and of graduate students. Small sample sizes do not permit further exploration of the differences in the physical sciences and mathematics. It is possible, for example, that women with baccalaureates in these fields may pursue further study in non-S&E fields to a greater extent than do men.

Minorities  top of page

Members of all racial/ethnic groups,[2] with the exception of Asians, have comparable levels of participation in further study following receipt of an S&E baccalaureate. Among those who received S&E bachelor's degrees in 1996/97 and 1997/98, between 29 and 30 percent of whites, Hispanics, and blacks were enrolled full or part time in April 1999; the comparable percentage for Asians was 36 percent. (See text table 4-1 text table.)

The percentages of blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians among those receiving S&E baccalaureates are similar to the respective rates of representation for these groups among S&E graduate students. Disaggregation by field shows that these similarities of representation occur across most S&E fields. (See text table 4-2 text table.) In computer science, however, blacks and Hispanics accounted for smaller percentages of graduate students enrolled in 1999 than of the bachelor's recipients of 1998, while Asians constituted a much higher percentage.

Students with disabilities  top of page

Students with disabilities, who constituted 4 percent of the 1996/97 and 1997/98 S&E bachelor's degree recipients, were just as likely as those without disabilities to be enrolled full or part time in an educational program in 1999. Among this cohort, 30 percent of students with and without disabilities were enrolled in April 1999. (See text table 4-1 text table.)


[2]  Data refer to U.S. citizens and permanent residents only.

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