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women and minorities
Introduction Chapter 1: Precollege Education Chapter 2: Undergraduate Enrollment Chapter 3: Undergraduate Degrees Chapter 4: Graduate Enrollment Chapter 5: Graduate Degrees Chapter 6: Employment Technical Notes Appendix Tables
Chapter Contents:
Overview
Master's degrees
Doctorates
Sources of financial support
Demographic characteristics
Satisfaction with field of doctoral program
Postgraduation plans and postdoctoral fellowships
References
 
Sidebars
Appendix Tables
List of Figures
Presentation Slides

Graduate Degrees

Postgraduation plans and postdoctoral fellowships

Women
Minorities
Students with disabilities

Among U.S. citizen and permanent resident S&E doctorate recipients in 1999 who had definite postgraduation plans at the time they received their doctorate, 40 percent planned to pursue postdoctoral study. (See appendix table 5-28.)

Women  top of page

Among all U.S. citizen and permanent resident S&E doctoral recipients in 1999 with definite postgraduation plans, women were more likely than men to have plans for postdoctoral study (43 versus 38 percent) or for academic employment (25 versus 20 percent). On the other hand, they were less likely than men to have plans for employment in industry (15 versus 26 percent). These general findings vary somewhat by field; thus, in some fields, men's and women's postgraduation plans were similar. For example, within the biological sciences, 74 percent of both women and men planned postdoctoral study, and 7 percent planned industrial employment. Within other fields, differences by sex remain. In the physical sciences, for instance, 42 percent of women and 51 percent of men planned postdoctoral study. (See appendix table 5-28.)

The number of postdoctoral fellows—of either sex—in S&E steadily increased from 1990 to 1999. (See appendix table 5-29.) During this period, the proportion of S&E postdoctoral fellowships held by women rose from 26 to 30 percent. Both the number of female postdoctoral fellows and the percentage of females as a share of total increased in all major S&E fields.

Minorities  top of page

Black and American Indian U.S. citizen and permanent resident S&E doctorate recipients in 1999 were less likely and Asians more likely than members of other racial/ethnic groups to have definite plans for postdoctoral study. Among those with plans for employment, a higher percentage of blacks, and a lower percentage of Asians, than of other groups had definite plans for academic employment. A higher percentage of Asians than of other groups had definite plans for industrial employment. (See appendix table 5-30.) These patterns are related to differences among racial/ethnic groups in degree field—those with degrees in the social sciences and psychology are less likely than those whose degrees are in other fields to take postdoctoral appointments and are more likely to choose academic employment. Those with degrees in engineering are less likely than those whose degrees are in other fields to take postdoctoral appointments and are more likely to choose industrial employment.

Students with disabilities  top of page

Students with disabilities were less likely than those without disabilities among the 1999 cohort of U.S. citizen and permanent resident S&E doctoral recipients to have plans for postdoctoral study (34 versus 40 percent) or for industrial employment (18 versus 22 percent). (See appendix table 5-31.) These patterns are again related to differences in degree field, as is the case for women and minorities. Higher percentages of doctorate recipients with disabilities than of those without disabilities earned their Ph.D. in psychology and the social sciences, fields in which fewer recipients pursue postdoctoral study; lower percentages earned their doctorates in the physical and biological sciences, which are fields in which postdoctoral study is prevalent.



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