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Women, Minorities and Persons wiht Disabilities
in Science and Engineering: 2002
Introduction Chapter 2: Undergraduate Enrollment Chapter 3: Undergraduate Degrees Chapter 4: Graduate Enrollment Chapter 5: Graduate Degrees Chapter 6: Employment Technical Notes Appendix Tables
Chapter Contents:
Overview
Trends in S&E employment, 1993-99
Labor force participation, employment, and unemployment
Occupations of scientists and engineers
Sector of employment
Nondoctoral scientists and engineers
Professional development activities
Salaries of employed scientists and engineers
Initial labor force experiences of recent graduates
A demographic profile: Age and family characteristics
References
 
Sidebars
Appendix Tables
List of Figures
Presentation Slides

Employment

Trends in S&E employment, 1993-99

Women
Minorities
Minority women
Persons with disabilities

Previous chapters discussed the various populations that feed into the labor force.[1] This section highlights the growth, by demographic group, of working scientists and engineers.[2] The number of employed people in the United States with either S&E degrees or S&E occupations grew from 9.8 million to 11.0 million from 1993 to 1999. The number of those who are employed in S&E occupations has grown from 3.3 to 3.5 million over that time period.[3] (See appendix table 6-1.)

Women  top of page

Women constituted 35 percent of employed people with either an S&E degree or in an S&E occupation and 24 percent of those employed in an S&E occupation in 1999. (See appendix table 6-1.) Roughly the same proportion of women were employed in S&E in 1999 as in 1993. Further, women accounted for approximately the same percentages of physical scientists, life scientists, social scientists, and engineers in 1993 and 1999. They comprised a slightly smaller percentage of computer and mathematical scientists in 1999 than in 1993.

Minorities  top of page

Asians, blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians combined were 17 percent of employed persons with either S&E degrees or S&E occupations and 18 percent of those in S&E occupations in the United States in 1999.[4] Asians made up 11 percent, blacks and Hispanics were each about 3 percent, and American Indians were less than 0.5 percent of those in S&E occupations in 1999. (See appendix table 6-1.) The percentage distribution of employed scientists and engineers by race/ethnicity changed little between 1993 and 1999, with the exception of a slight increase in the proportion that is Asian and a slight decrease in the proportion that is white.

Minority women  top of page

Seven percent of employed people with either an S&E degree or in an S&E occupation and 5 percent of those employed in an S&E occupation in 1999 were minority women. (See appendix table 6-2.) More specifically, Asian women were 3 percent, black and Hispanic women were each 1 percent, and American Indian women were 0.1 percent of those employed in S&E occupations. Within every racial/ethnic group, women accounted for a smaller percentage of total scientists and engineers than did men.

Persons with disabilities  top of page

People with disabilities accounted for 7 percent of employed people with either an S&E degree or in an S&E occupation and 6 percent of those employed in an S&E occupation in 1999; these were about the same percentages as in 1993. (See appendix table 6-3.)






Footnotes

[1]  Much of the data in this chapter come from the National Science Foundation's Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) surveys. (See appendix A for a description of the SESTAT population and information relating to standard errors of the estimates from these surveys.) Because changes were made in these surveys over time to improve data quality and survey coverage, trend data before the surveys of the 1990s on S&E employment are not available; comparisons can be made, however, between 1993 and 1999.

[2]  The definition of "scientists and engineers" used in SESTAT includes all persons who have ever received a bachelor's degree or higher in an S&E field, plus persons holding a non-S&E bachelor's or higher degree who were employed in an S&E occupation at the time they first were surveyed in the 1990s.

[3]  Because after 1993 the SESTAT surveys identify individuals for inclusion at the point of earning a science or engineering degree from a U.S. institution, two subpopulations of scientists and engineers in the United States are underrepresented in the SESTAT integrated database in subsequent survey years: (1) new immigrants with S&E degrees earned outside the United States who entered the U.S. labor force after 1990, and (2) people with no S&E degrees working in S&E occupations after 1990. See appendix A for more information on undercoverage in the SESTAT surveys.

[4]  The racial/ethnic data presented in this chapter are not restricted to U.S. citizens and permanent residents but also include persons on temporary visas. Such people represent only a small proportion of employed scientists and engineers (less than 2 percent).

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