Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review


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Brennan, M. B. 1992. Marriage, gender influence career advancement for chemists. C&EN 70 (May 4): 46–48, 51.

Brennan, M. B. 1996. Women chemists reconsidering careers at research universities. C&EN 74 (June 10):8—15.

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Busenberg, B. E. 1999. A step behind: Job satisfaction among women academic scientists. (Doctoral dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International A-60/06:1929.

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Cole, J. R., and H. Zuckerman. 1991. Marriage, motherhood, and research performance in science. In H. Zuckerman, J. R. Cole, and J. T. Bruer, eds., The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community pp. 157–170. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.

Everett, K. G., W. S. DeLoach, and S. E. Bressan. 1996. Women in the ranks: Faculty trends in the ACS-approved departments. Journal of Chemical Education 73(2):139–141.

Farber, S. 1977. The earnings and promotion of women faculty: Comment. The American Economic Review 67(2):199–200.

Ferber, M. A., and B. Kordick. 1978. Sex differentials in the earnings of Ph.Ds. Industrial Labor Relations Review 31:227–238.

Ferber, M. A., J. W. Loeb, and H. M. Lowry. 1978. The economic status of women faculty: A reappraisal. The Journal of Human Resources 13(2):385–401.

Ferber, M. A., and M. Teinman. 1980. Are women economists at a disadvantage in publishing journal articles? Eastern Economic Journal 6(3–4):189–193.

Finkel, S. K. 1993. The effects of bearing and raising children on the careers of female assistant professors. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International A-55/02:252.

Folbre, N. 1993. How does she know? Feminist theories of gender bias in economics. History of Political Economy 25(1):167–184.

Formby, J. P., W. D. Gunther, and R. Sakano. 1993. Entry level salaries of academic economists: Does gender and age matter? Economic Inquiry 31:128–138.

Gordon, N., T. Morton, and I. Branden. 1974. Faculty salaries: Is there discrimination by sex, race, and discipline? American Economic Review 64:419–427.

Haberfeld, Y., and Y. Shenhav. 1990. Are women and blacks closing the gap? Salary discrimination in American sciences during the 1970s and 1980s. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44(1):68–82.

Hagedorn, L. S. 1995. Wage equity and female faculty job satisfaction causal model. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International A-56/06:2130.

Hamovitch, W., and R. D. Morgenstern. 1977. Children and the productivity of academic women. Journal of Higher Education 47(6):633–645.

Heylin, M. 1989. Female chemistry faculty numbers remain low. C&EN 67:34.

Hirsch, B. T., and K. Leppel. 1982. Sex discrimination in faculty salaries: Evidence from a historically women's university. The American Economic Review 72:829–835.

Hoffman, E. P. 1976. Determinants of faculty rank: The discriminant analysis approach. Quarterly Report of Economics and Business 17(2):80–88.

Horning, L. S. 1980. Untenured and tenuous: The status of women faculty. Annals of the American Academy March: 115–125.

Johnson, G. E., and F. P. Stafford. 1974. The earnings and promotion of women faculty. The American Economic Review 64(6):888–903.

Kahn, S. 1993. Gender differences in academic career paths of economists. AER Papers and Proceedings May: 52–56.

Katz, D. A. 1973. Faculty salaries, promotions, and productivity at a large university. The American Economic Review 63(3):469.

Kirshstein, R., N. Matheson, and J. Zhongren. 1997. Women and minority faculty in science and engineering. Draft report prepared for the National Science Foundation.

Koch, J. V., and J. F. Chizmar. 1976. Sex discrimination and affirmative action in faculty salaries. Economic Inquiry 14:16–24.

Koplin, V. W., and L. D. Singell Jr. 1996. The gender composition and scholarly performance of economics departments: A test for employment discrimination. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49(3):408–423.

Lindley, J. T., M. Fish, and J. Jackson. 1992. Gender differences in salaries: An application to academe. Southern Economic Journal 59(3):241–259.

Long, J. S., and M. F. Fox. 1978. Scientific careers: Universalism and particularism. Annual Review of Sociology 21:45–71.

Long, J. S. 2001. From Scarcity to Visibility: Gender Differences in the Careers of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Macfarlane, A., and S. Luzzadder-Beach. 1998. Achieving equity between women and men in the geosciences. GSA Bulletin 110(12) December: 1590–1614.

Martin, M. P., and J. D. Williams. 1979. Effects of statewide salary equity provisions on institutional salary policies. In T. R. Pezzullo and B. E. Brittingham, eds., Salary Equity, pp. 57–67. Lexington, Kentucky: Lexington Books.

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Mathtech Inc. 1999. The effects of graduate support mechanisms on early career outcomes. Report prepared under NSF Contract No. SRS 97317954. Arlington, VA.

McDowell, J. M., and J. K. Smith. 1992. The effect of gender sorting on propensity to coauthor: Implications for academic promotion. Economic Inquiry 30(1):68–82.

McMillen, D. P., and L. D. Singell Jr. 1994. Gender differences in first jobs for economists. Southern Economic Journal 60(3):701–714.

McNabb, R., and V. Wass. 1997. Male-female salary differentials in British universities. Oxford Economic Papers 49:328–343.

Megdal, S. B., and M. R. Ransom. 1985. Longitudinal change in salary at a large public university: What response to equal pay legislation? AER Papers and Proceedings May: 271–274.

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Neumark, D., and M. McLennan. 1995. Sex discrimination and women's labor market outcomes. Journal of Human Resources 30(4):713–740.

Olson, K. 1999. Who has tenure? Gender differences in science and engineering academia. Unpublished report, May.

O'Neill, J., and N. Sicherman. 1997. Earnings patterns and changes in economics and other sciences. Eastern Economic Journal 23(4):395–409.

Ongley, L. K., W. M. Bromley, and K. Osborne. 1998. Women geoscientists in academe: 1996–1997. GSA Today 8(1) November: 12–14.

Preston, A. E. 1994. Why have all the women gone? A study of exit of women from science and engineering professions. American Economic Review 84(5):1446–1462.

Ransom, M. R., and S. B. Megdal. 1993. Sex differences in the academic labor market in the affirmative action era. Economic of Education Review 12(1): 21–43.

Raymond, R. D., M. L. Sesnowitz, and D. R. Williams. 1988. Does sex still matter? New evidence from the 1980s. Economic Inquiry 26:43–58.

Raymond, R. D., M. L. Sesnowitz, and D. R. Williams. 1993. Further evidence on gender and academic rank. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 3(2):197–215.

Reskin, B. F. 1976. Sex differences in status attainment in sciences: The case of the postdoctoral fellowship. American Sociological Review 41:597–612.

Roscher, N. M., and M. A. Cavanaugh. 1987. Academic women chemists in the 20th Century: Past, present, projections. Journal of Chemical Education 64:10.

Sonnert, G., and G. Holton. 1995. Gender Differences in Science Careers: The Project Access Study. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Strober, M. H., and A. O. Quester. 1977. The earnings and promotion of women: Comment. The American Economic Review 67(2):207.

Szafran, R. F. 1984. Universities and Women Faculty: Why Some Organizations Discriminate More Than Others. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Tolbert, P. S., T. Simons, A. Andrews, and J. Rhee. 1995. The effects of gender composition in academic departments on faculty turnover. Industrial Labor Relations Review 48(3):562–579.

Tolles, N. A., and E. Melichar. 1968. Studies of the structure of economists salaries and incomes. American Economic Review 58(5) Part 2: 1–153.

Van der Berg, B., J. Siegers, and R. Winter-Ebmer. 1988. Gender and promotion in the academic labour market. Labour 12(4):701–713.

Weiss, Y., and L. Lillard. 1982. Output variability, academic labor contracts, and waiting times for promotion. Research in Labor Economics 5:157–188.

Winkler, J. A., D. Tucker, and A. K. Smith. 1996. Salaries and advancement of women faculty in atmospheric science: Some reasons for concern. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77(3):

Wolfe, C. J. 1999. Number of women faculty in the geosciences increasing, but slowly. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 80 (March): 1, 136.

Zuckerman, H., J. R. Cole, and J. T. Bruer, eds. 1991. The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.

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