Table 2-2
Funding of U.S. research and development: 1953–99
(Millions of constant 1996 dollars)
 
  All R&D   Academic R&D
Year Total Federal Industry Other
nonfederal
  Total Federal Industry Other
nonfederal
1953 26,805 14,455 11,670 681   1,416 774 106 535
1954 28,912 15,957 12,215 741   1,548 846 121 581
1955 31,756 18,217 12,750 789   1,729 966 137 627
1956 41,565 24,342 16,359 863   1,912 1,081 154 677
1957 46,892 29,497 16,420 975   2,049 1,143 173 733
1958 50,439 32,228 17,130 1,081   2,269 1,294 180 795
1959 57,082 37,327 18,576 1,179   2,678 1,625 181 873
1960 61,790 40,176 20,352 1,262   3,175 2,039 180 956
1961 64,903 42,265 21,199 1,440   3,714 2,480 178 1,056
1962 68,761 44,583 22,531 1,647   4,365 3,019 178 1,168
1963 76,169 50,632 23,720 1,817   5,122 3,646 176 1,299
1964 81,846 54,688 25,225 1,932   5,889 4,263 174 1,452
1965 85,165 55,482 27,538 2,145   6,705 4,907 175 1,624
1966 90,236 57,910 29,971 2,355   7,433 5,458 184 1,791
1967 92,608 57,766 32,311 2,530   8,072 5,912 204 1,955
1968 93,788 56,898 34,249 2,641   8,316 6,030 219 2,067
1969 94,222 55,195 36,283 2,744   8,264 5,884 219 2,161
1970 90,404 51,563 35,955 2,886   8,319 5,800 225 2,294
1971 88,308 49,837 35,465 3,006   8,404 5,765 236 2,403
1972 90,321 50,406 36,816 3,099   8,664 5,940 248 2,476
1973 92,118 49,366 39,579 3,172   8,789 5,978 266 2,544
1974 91,095 47,206 40,648 3,241   8,781 5,898 284 2,599
1975 89,112 46,299 39,531 3,282   8,917 5,996 295 2,626
1976 93,227 47,971 41,849 3,406   9,216 6,191 310 2,715
1977 96,449 49,211 43,629 3,610   9,653 6,425 343 2,885
1978 101,127 50,732 46,561 3,834   10,358 6,901 376 3,081
1979 106,137 52,254 49,946 3,937   10,937 7,365 411 3,162
1980 110,927 52,656 54,223 4,048   11,317 7,599 462 3,256
1981 115,868 54,054 57,637 4,178   11,360 7,487 503 3,370
1982 122,034 56,200 61,422 4,411   11,475 7,364 548 3,563
1983 130,770 60,359 65,714 4,696   11,979 7,564 627 3,787
1984 143,259 65,188 73,050 5,020   12,813 8,045 724 4,043
1985 155,757 71,581 78,656 5,519   13,988 8,669 855 4,464
1986 159,789 72,648 80,987 6,155   15,323 9,331 989 5,003
1987 162,798 75,468 80,660 6,671   16,508 10,013 1,071 5,424
1988 166,974 75,028 84,749 7,197   17,728 10,712 1,163 5,852
1989 170,427 72,642 90,028 7,757   18,773 11,186 1,274 6,313
1990 175,761 71,285 96,183 8,293   19,577 11,485 1,347 6,744
1991 179,471 67,836 102,945 8,690   20,301 11,893 1,385 7,024
1992 180,050 66,336 104,779 8,935   21,106 12,548 1,437 7,121
1993 176,198 64,343 102,657 9,197   21,780 13,078 1,479 7,223
1994 176,246 63,316 103,326 9,604   22,488 13,525 1,515 7,448
1995 187,167 64,180 113,017 9,970   23,036 13,843 1,576 7,617
1996 197,330 63,392 123,412 10,526   23,686 14,067 1,667 7,953
1997 208,316 63,544 133,626 11,147   24,608 14,434 1,777 8,397
1998 219,794 64,743 143,254 11,797   25,832 15,103 1,910 8,820
1999 233,027 64,628 155,958 12,441   27,072 15,766 2,036 9,269
 
NOTE: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.
 
SOURCE: National Science Board, appendix tables 4-6 and 5-2, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, NSB-02-1A.
 
U.S. Doctorates in the 20th Century