The data presented in this report were compiled from the National Science Foundation (NSF) fiscal year 2004 Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges (academic R&D expenditures survey). The survey asks universities and colleges to report their separately budgeted R&D expenditures within science and engineering (S&E) fields. Unless noted differently, expenditures analyzed in this report refer to S&E R&D activities only. Non-S&E expenditures are reported separately and are not included in the overall expenditure totals. Terms used in institutional accounting procedures are incorporated throughout the tables and are defined below.
Separately budgeted R&D expenditures include all funds expended for activities that are specifically organized to produce research outcomes. These activities are either commissioned by an agency external to the institution or are separately budgeted by an organizational unit within the institution. Expenditures are funds actually spent by an institution during its fiscal year. Separately budgeted R&D equipment purchased from current funds includes all research equipment purchased under sponsored research project awards.
Federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) are R&D-performing organizations that range from traditional contractor-owned/contractor-operated or government-owned/contractor-operated organizational structures to various degrees of contractor/government control and ownership. FFRDCs are formed to achieve particular federal R&D objectives that cannot be met as effectively by existing organizations.
Imputation and imputed data refer to the computerized process by which NSF develops estimates of data when institutions do not furnish information upon request. Estimates are based primarily on key data items reported in prior-year surveys. When these key data items are not available, estimates are derived from data of respondent institutions that have similar characteristics, including highest degree granted and type of institutional control (public or private). In this publication, the letter "i" is used to identify imputed data. The letter "e" is used when institutional respondents indicated that their data were estimated or when data required slight mathematical adjustments.
Data presented in trend tables are from the most recently completed survey cycle. Prior-year data have been reviewed for consistency with current-year responses and, when necessary, were revised in consultation with institutional respondents. Institutions revise data from previous years when important changes occur in reporting practices and program classifications, and only the latest tables incorporate such changes. To obtain accurate historical data, use only the latest detailed statistical tables for FY 2004 and not data published earlier.
Requests for additional information concerning the survey findings for the current or prior surveys should be directed to
Research and Development Statistics Program
Division of Science Resources Statistics
National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965
Arlington, VA 22230
Telephone: (703) 292-7765