National Patterns of R&D Resources: 2004 Date Update.

Historical Database for National Patterns

Download PDF version PDF format PDF (105K)

Mapping Keys Top.

Table 1. U.S. research and development expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1994–2004

Performing sector: Total Federal Industry Industry FFRDCs Universities & colleges U&C FFRDCs Other non-profit institutions Nonprofit FFRDCs
Funding sector: Total Federal Total Federal Industry Total Total Federal Other government Industry U&C Nonprofit Total Total Federal Industry Nonprofit Total
Current dollars [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]
Constant dollars [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36]

Table 2. U.S. research and development expenditures, by source of funds and performing sector: 1994–2004

Funding sector: Federal Industry Nonprofits
Performing sector: Total Total Total
Current dollars [37] [38] [39]
Constant dollars [40] [41] [42]

Table 3. U.S. basic research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1994–2004

Performing sector: Total Federal Industry Industry FFRDCs Universities & colleges U&C FFRDCs Other non-profit institutions Nonprofit FFRDCs
Funding sector: Total Federal Total Federal Industry Total Total Federal Other government Industry U&C Nonprofit Total Total Federal Industry Nonprofit Total
Current dollars [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]
Constant dollars [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78]

Table 4. U.S. basic research expenditures, by source of funds and performing sector: 1994–2004

Funding sector: Federal Industry Nonprofits
Performing sector: Total Total Total
Current dollars [79] [80] [81]
Constant dollars [82] [83] [84]

Table 5. U.S. applied research expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1994–2004

Performing sector: Total Federal Industry Industry FFRDCs Universities & colleges U&C FFRDCs Other non-profit institutions Nonprofit FFRDCs
Funding sector: Total Federal Total Federal Industry Total Total Federal Other government Industry U&C Nonprofit Total Total Federal Industry Nonprofit Total
Current dollars [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] [98} [99] [100] [101] [102]
Constant dollars [103] [104] [105] [106] [107} [108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118] [119] [120]

Table 6. U.S. applied research expenditures, by source of funds and performing sector: 1994–2004

Funding sector: Federal Industry Nonprofits
Performing sector: Total Total Total
Current dollars [121] [122] [123]
Constant dollars [124] [125] [126]

Table 7. U.S. development expenditures, by performing sector and source of funds: 1994–2004

Performing sector: Total Federal Industry Industry FFRDCs Universities & colleges U&C FFRDCs Other non-profit institutions Nonprofit FFRDCs
Funding sector: Total Federal Total Federal Industry Total Total Federal Other government Industry U&C Nonprofit Total Total Federal Industry Nonprofit Total
Current dollars [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132} [133] [134] [135] [136] [137] [138] [139] [140] [141] [142] [143] [144]
Constant dollars [145] [146] [147] [148] [149] [150] [151] [152] [153] [154] [155] [156] [157] [158] [159] [160] [161] [162]

Table 8. U.S. development expenditures, by source of funds and performing sector: 1994–2004

Funding sector: Federal Industry Nonprofits
Performing sector: Total Total Total
Current dollars [163] [164] [165]
Constant dollars [166] [167] [168]

Technical Notes Top.

Technical notes explaining methodological issues of measurement will be provided in NSF, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 2003 Methodology Report (forthcoming). Data are based on annual reports by performers except for the nonprofit sector. Data are preliminary for 2003 and projected for 2004. For trend comparisons, use only the historical data reported here. Do not use data published earlier.

Data column Note(s)
2 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
4 R&D for industry FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
5 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
6 R&D for industry FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry FFRDCs for those years is included in the data for federal support to industry.
6 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
6 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
6 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
7 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
7 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
8 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
8 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
9 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
9 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
9 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
10 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
10 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
11 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
11 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
12 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
12 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
13 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
13 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
15 R&D for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofits includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
15 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
18 R&D for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofits includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
18Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
18 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
20 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
22 R&D for industry FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
23 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
24 R&D for industry FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry FFRDCs for those years is included in the data for federal support to industry.
24 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
24 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
24 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
25 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
25 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
26 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
26 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
27 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
27 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
27 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
28 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
28 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
29 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
29 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
30 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
30 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
31 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
31 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
33 R&D for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofits includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
33 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
36 R&D for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-54 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofits includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
36 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
36 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
44Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
45 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
46 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
46 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
47 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
47 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
48 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
48 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
48 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
48 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
49 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
49 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
49 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
50 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
50 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
50 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
51 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
51 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
51 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
51 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
52 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
52 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
52 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
53 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
53 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
53 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
54 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
54 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
54 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
55 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
55 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
57 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
57 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
60 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
60 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
60 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
62 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
63 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
64 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
64 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
65 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
65 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
66 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
66 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
66 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
66Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
67 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
67 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
67 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
68 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
68 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
68 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
69 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
69 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
69 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
69 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
70 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
70 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
70 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
71 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
71 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
71 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
72 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
72 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
72 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
73 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
73 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
75 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
75 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
78 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. The calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
78 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
78 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
86 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
87 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
88 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
88 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
89 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
89 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
90 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
90 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
90 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
90 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
91 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
91 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
91 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
92 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
92 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
92The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
93 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
93 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
93 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
93 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
94 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
94 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
94 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
95 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
95 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
95 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
96 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
96 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
96 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
97 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
97 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
99 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
99 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
102 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. The calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
102 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
102 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
104 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
105 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
106 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
106 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
107 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
107 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
108 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
108 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
108 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
108 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
109 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
109 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
109 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
110 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
110 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
110 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
111 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
111 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
111 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
111 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
112 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
112 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
112 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
113 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
113 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
113 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
114 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
114 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
114 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
115 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
115 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
117 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
117 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
120 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. The calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
120 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
120 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
128 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
129 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
130 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
130 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
131 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
131 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
132 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
132 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
132 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
132 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
133 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
133 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
133 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
134 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
134 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
134 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
135 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
135 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
135 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
135 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
136 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
136 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
136 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
137 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
137 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
137 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
138 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
138 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
138 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
139 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
139 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
141 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
141 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
144 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. The calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
144 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
144 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.
146 Expenditure levels for federal government performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For federal government expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
147 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
148 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
148 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
149 The character of work estimates for industry have been revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
149 Industry sources of industry R&D expenditures include all nonfederal sources of industry R&D expenditures.
150 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for industry FFRDCs for 1953-63 were not separated from federal support to the industrial sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to industry includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
150 Beginning in 2001, data for industry-administered FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the firms administering the FFRDCs.
150 Expenditure levels for industry-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data for 2001 and later years. For these years the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
150 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by industry.
151 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
151 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
151 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
152 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $421 million in federal passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,086 million in federal passthrough funds are estimated.
152 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
152 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
153 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
153 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
153 Because of limitations in the survey information, data on nonfederal government funding to other performers are not available and are consequently included in other sectors' support for their own R&D performance. For example, nonfederal government support to nonprofits is included in nonprofits' support for their own R&D.
153 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
154 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
154 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
154 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
155 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
155 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
155 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
156 Adjustments have been made to university R&D for 1998 and later years to eliminate double counting of funds passed through from one academic institution to another. Data for 1998 and later years are not directly comparable to data for 1997 and earlier years. For fiscal year 1998, $479 million in total passthrough funds were reported. For fiscal year 2004, $1,207 million in total passthrough funds are estimated.
156 Expenditure levels for academic performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For academic expenditures the calendar-year approximation is equal to 50 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 50 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year because these institutions generally begin their fiscal years on July 1.
156 The character of work estimation procedure for university and college R&D also was revised for 1998 and later years; hence these data are not directly comparable with data for 1997 and earlier years.
157 Expenditure levels for university and college-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For federal government expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
157 Includes all R&D expenditures of FFRDCs administered by academic institutions.
159 Expenditure levels for federal support to nonprofit performers presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. For expenditures starting in 1977, the calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year. For expenditures prior to 1977, the respective percentages are 50 and 50, because prior to 1977 the federal fiscal year began on July 1 instead of October 1.
159 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
162 Expenditure levels for nonprofit-administered FFRDCs presented here are in reference to calendar years. These levels are approximations based on fiscal-year data. The calendar-year approximation is equal to 75 percent of the amount reported in the same fiscal year plus 25 percent of the amount reported in the subsequent fiscal year.
162 Character of work estimates (basic research, applied research, development) for nonprofit FFRDCs for 1953-87 were not separated from federal support to the nonprofit sector. Thus, the figure for federal support to nonprofit institutions includes support to FFRDCs for those years.
162 Beginning in 2001, data for nonprofit FFRDCs are reported by the FFRDCs. In prior years, the data were collected from the federal agencies supporting the FFRDCs.

Sources: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics. Data were derived from NSF/SRS, Research and Development in Industry 2003; NSF/SRS, Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 2003; NSF/SRS, Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 2003, 2004, and 2005; and NSF/SRS Survey of R&D Funding & Performance by Nonprofit Organizations: Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.



Top of page. Table of Contents. Help. SRS Homepage.