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National Science Foundation National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
Contents

General Notes

Data Tables

Appendix A. Technical Notes

Appendix B. Survey Materials

Suggested Citation, Acknowledgements



Kelly Kang,
Project Officer
(703) 292-7796
Human Resources Statistics Program

NCSES Home
Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2010

 


Appendix A. Technical Notes

 

Survey Universe


The Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering (GSS) is an annual census of all known U.S. academic institutions that grant master's degrees or research doctorates in science and engineering (S&E) fields or selected health fields.[1] The data collected in the 2010 GSS represent national estimates of graduate student enrollment and postdoctoral (postdoc) employment as of fall 2010.

In 2010 the survey universe consisted of 692 schools at 574 academic institutions: 481 schools at 364 doctorate-granting institutions, and 211 schools at 210 master's-granting institutions.[2] Data collected at the organizational unit level (e.g., departments, degree-granting programs, research centers, health facilities) included fields of study, and demographic and funding information for graduate students; fields of study, type of degree, demographic, and funding information for postdocs; and type of degree, and sex for other doctorate-holding nonfaculty researchers (NFRs). The 2010 survey was revised to collect postdoc data at a comparable level of detail as for the graduate student data.

Table A-1 shows the number of institutions, schools, and organizational units (e.g., departments, degree-granting programs), by degree level covered by the GSS, and shows estimated total annual enrollment in GSS-eligible fields between 1966 and 2010. Tables A-2 and A-3 show the number of units surveyed, by detailed field, in doctorate-granting and master's-granting institutions, respectively.


Revisions Affecting Survey Eligibility

No revisions affected the survey universe in 2010; revisions to the eligibility criteria for units and fields of study in 2007 and 2008 are described below.

Units. Survey procedures introduced in 2007, per design, appear to have greatly improved inclusion of eligible units and exclusion of ineligible units. In 2010 the number of unit deletions was on par with that of 2009, but the number of unit additions increased by about 40%, potentially due to the increased emphasis on postdoc and NFR data, and the inclusion of nondegree-granting units where these individuals hold positions (table 1). The dramatic increase in the number of units added and deleted in 2007–10 suggests that there was underreporting of GSS-eligible units and overreporting of ineligible units in previous survey years. See the "Technical Notes" section of the 2007 report for more detail on the changes introduced in 2007.


Table 1. Unit list modifications: 2006–10
  Year
Activity 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Units at start of data collection 12,297 12,320 12,629 13,166 13,285
Units added 397 1,273 1,215 744 1,039
Units deleted 374 964 678 625 613
Units at end of data collection 12,320 12,629 13,166 13,285 13,711
Net difference 23 309 537 119 426


Fields of study and degree-granting programs. In 2007 a comprehensive review of GSS-eligible fields led to the following changes: updating the GSS-eligible, degree-granting programs from the 1990 to the 2000 Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) taxonomy of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES); representing degree-granting programs with a six-digit CIP specificity rather than the four-digit CIP specificity; eliminating programs that lacked a research focus, adding three new fields, and reclassifying programs and fields as needed. See the Technical Notes section of the 2007 report for more detail.


Changes Affecting Survey Comparability

Because of the adjustments to the taxonomy and other survey changes introduced in 2007, data collected since that year are not directly comparable with data from previous years. For trend analyses, the detailed statistical tables (DSTs) provide estimates of the counts that would have been collected in 2007 had the 2006 methodology been used (see "Bridge Year Calculation and Display").

Survey changes that affect comparability of the data are as follows:

  • 2010: The postdoc section of the survey was greatly expanded, and significant effort was made to ensure that appropriate personnel were providing postdoc and NFR data. As a result, it is unclear how much of the increase reported in 2010 represents actual growth in postdocs and how much results from improved data collection. More information on the improved data collection and changes in postdoc data will be released in a forthcoming InfoBrief, which will be available at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/gradpostdoc/.
  • 2007–10: In the 2007 survey cycle, three newly eligible fields were added, some degree-granting programs became ineligible, and others were reclassified. Tables in this report present data for 2007, the bridge year, in two ways. Data collected under the new methodology are shown as "2007new." For trend analysis, an estimate of 2007 data under the 2006 methodology is shown as "2007old."
  • 1975–2006: The data are intended to represent consistent coverage of S&E and selected health fields. In 1989 the National Science Foundation (NSF) revised the coverage of S&E fields in the survey. Some fields were excluded, and the data for 1975–88 subsequently were revised to reflect this change.
  • 1984–87: Data on master's-granting institutions were collected on a sample basis. Enrollment data for this period have been adjusted to account for the sampling and reflect estimated universe totals. Starting with the 1988 survey cycle, the GSS has attempted to cover all U.S. academic institutions that grant master's or doctoral degrees in S&E or selected health fields.
  • 1978: Master's-granting institutions were not surveyed in 1978. Figures for 1978 total enrollment and full-time enrollment in master's-granting institutions are estimates based on 1977 and 1979 data. Doctorate-granting institutions received a short form of the GSS that collected selected data items; the short form did not request any information on sex, citizenship, or mechanisms of support.
  • 1972–74: Eligibility definitions changed, affecting both S&E fields and types of institutions surveyed. These data are not comparable with data collected before 1972 or after 1974.
  • 1966–71: Totals are for the NSF Graduate Traineeship program only and are not comparable with data from 1972 through 2009.


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Changes in Eligibility and Degree-Granting Status


Institutions are classified as doctorate granting if at least one GSS-eligible unit confers doctoral degrees. Eight institutions changed GSS degree-granting status in 2010. The status of one institution and one school changed from eligible to ineligible, based on criteria for inclusion in the GSS (see "Survey Universe" above).

Status changed to doctorate granting from master's granting, five institutions:

  • Missouri State University
  • Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
  • Roosevelt University
  • University of West Georgia
  • Xavier University

Status changed to master's granting from doctorate granting, three institutions:

  • CUNY College of Staten Island
  • Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
  • University of Texas at Tyler

Status changed from eligible to ineligible, two institutions/schools:

  • East Central University
  • Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare

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Institution Name Changes and Mergers


Eight institutions reported a name change in 2010:

2009 name 2010 name
• Coppin State College • Coppin State University
• Forest Institute of Professional Psychology • The School of Professional Psychology at Forest Institute
• Framingham State College • Framingham State University
• Medical College of Georgia • Georgia Health Sciences University
• RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies • Pardee RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies
• Russell Sage College • The Sage Colleges
• Washburn University of Topeka • Washburn University
• Worcester State College • Worcester State University


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Survey Instrument and Procedures


In 2010 the Web survey was the primary mode of data submission. The survey was launched in October 2010 and concluded in July 2011.

The 2010 survey consisted of two parts: Part 1, which could only be completed using the Web survey system, required the identification of organizational units ("units") within the school. Part 2 collected counts and selected characteristics of graduate students, postdocs, and NFRs. A paper worksheet was provided for preparing figures to be entered later in Part 2 of the Web survey. To assist with the transfer of information, the content and format of the paper worksheet were identical to Part 2 of the Web survey. A small number of coordinators chose to submit Part 2 using modes other than the Web survey.

The deadline for Part 1, the update of the unit list, was 17 December 2010. Schools that missed this Part 1 deadline received special attention from the survey contractor early in the survey cycle. The deadline for submitting data for Part 2 was 28 February 2011.

To respond to Part 1 and Part 2, institutions selected coordinator(s) for each school that granted a graduate degree in a GSS-eligible field. Coordinators were responsible for the following:

  • Identifying all eligible units (e.g., departments, degree-granting programs, research centers, health facilities)
  • Reporting GSS data or delegating reporting to unit respondents, such as department personnel or personnel in nonacademic departments (e.g., the financial aid office or the registrar's office)
  • Submitting the data for all units to the survey contractor
  • Providing data, by field of study, from administrative records


Revisions to Survey Instrument

The 2010 GSS collected expanded data on postdocs and NFRs as follows:

New data on postdocs:

  • Postdoc definition—Respondents reporting postdoc data were asked whether the institution had a formal definition of a postdoc position and whether certain characteristics (e.g., doctorate was recently awarded) were required for their postdocs.
  • Demographic data—Race and ethnicity by sex were added to augment the previously collected postdoc citizenship data. With these additions, postdoc and graduate student demographic data now correspond.
  • Funding data—Primary source of support was expanded to include the detailed federal and nonfederal categories collected for full-time graduate students, and an additional "unknown or not stated" category was added. For the mechanisms of support, the category "nonfederal sources" was replaced by "other support."
  • Doctoral degree type—Categories were expanded to collect whether a postdoc had a professional degree (e.g., MD, DVM), a doctoral degree (e.g., PhD, ScD), both a professional and a doctoral degree, or whether the doctoral degree type was unknown.
  • Doctoral degree type by citizenship—Collected for postdocs who are U.S. citizens and permanent residents, or foreign nationals with temporary visas.
  • Origin of postdocs' doctoral degrees—Categories included United States, a foreign country, or unknown.

New data on NFRs:

  • Doctoral degree type by sex—Collected new doctoral degree type categories by male and female.


Revisions to Procedures

In 2010 as part of an increased emphasis on improving data for postdocs and NFRs and to assist schools in reporting the additional information about postdocs and NFRs, the survey procedures were changed to encourage institutions to appoint a separate postdoc coordinator. Historically, a single school coordinator managed the data collection for graduate students, postdocs, and NFRs. The addition of a separate postdoc coordinator offered schools the flexibility to have a student coordinator oversee data collection for graduate students and a postdoc coordinator oversee data collection for postdocs and NFRs.


Revisions to Definitions

Two new categories for doctoral degree types for the postdocs and NFRs were added in 2010:

  • Doctoral Degree—Includes doctorates such as PhD, ScD, DSc, DEng, DESc, DES, DNSc, DPH, EdD, DA, DBA, DMA, DM, DSW, DDES, DPA, DPE, DCM, DHL, DIT, DME, DML, ThD, DFA, JSD, SJD, STD, JCD.
  • Professional Degree—PhD-equivalent medical degrees, such as MD, DO, DVM, DDS, DNP, DPM, PharmD, PsyD, DMD, ND, DC, OD, DPT, AuD, OTD, DScPT.


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Bridge-Year Data Calculation and Display


The 2007 survey changes that included modifications to the set of GSS-eligible fields are displayed in most DSTs in two ways: "2007old" and "2007new." A comparison of 2007old with 2007new data reflects differences due to the addition of the three newly added science fields and recoding of units from their 2006 fields to other fields in 2007. Data shown under 2007old provide 2007 estimates using the 2006 taxonomy, whereas 2007new and subsequent years provide data using the taxonomy introduced in 2007.

The 2007 taxonomy changes were as follows:

  • "Communication," "family and consumer sciences/human sciences," and "multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary studies" were added as newly eligible fields in GSS.
  • "Architecture" field was pulled out from "civil engineering" as a separate field.
  • "Neuroscience" was pulled out from "neurology" as a separate field.


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Response Rates


Units

From 2007–10 the method for calculating the response rates for units differed from that in prior years. Some units that were considered complete respondents are now classified as partial respondents. As in previous years, calculations were based on responses to the survey's data collection grids as follows: graduate student and postdoc counts, by race/ethnicity; full-time graduate student and postdoc counts, by primary sources/mechanisms of support; counts of postdocs, by type of doctoral degree and primary mechanism of support; counts of postdocs, by type of doctoral degree and citizenship; counts of postdocs, by origin of doctoral degree; and counts of NFRs, by type of doctoral degree and sex. In contrast, the criteria for classifying a unit's response were more stringent:

  • Units that provided complete data for all of the grids were counted as complete respondents.
  • Units that provided some data but were incomplete for any of the grids were considered partial respondents.
  • Units that provided no data for all grids were counted as nonrespondents.

From 2004 through 2006, a unit was considered a complete respondent if it reported complete row and column totals in the data collection grids and a partial respondent if it reported only grand totals for these grids; otherwise the unit was considered a nonrespondent. Beginning in 2007, to receive complete response status, a unit needed complete row and column totals for all grids as well as all details summing to the totals. Units that had only complete row and column totals for all grids were counted as partial respondents. As in previous years, units that reported only grand totals for all tables were counted as partial respondents. For more information about the methods used though 2003 and the change from 2003 to 2004, please see the 2004 technical notes (http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06325/appa.htm).

As in previous years, data collection grids in the Web survey were prefilled with zeros. Prior to 2007 prefilled zeros were considered legitimate responses if the grid was visited and left with all zeros in place. Beginning in 2007, a checkbox was placed above the grids. The respondent was required to check this box to explicitly confirm zeros for the grid to distinguish the true zeros reported by the respondents from those that remained from nonresponse. Grids with a marked checkbox contributed to a complete response for the unit. Grids with unchanged, prefilled zeros and a blank checkbox disqualified the unit from complete response status.

These new response rate calculations adhere to American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) standards for computing response rates.[3]

In 2010 the GSS received complete responses from 11,703 (85.4%) of the 13,711 eligible units. An additional 1,880 units (13.7%) were partial respondents. The remaining 128 units (0.9%) were nonrespondents. Table A-4 shows the unit response rates from 1975 through 2010.


Schools

The 2010 method for calculating the school response rate was consistent with the method used from 2004 through 2009. School response rates were calculated as follows: a complete respondent if 90% or more of its units provided complete or partial data; a partial respondent if at least 50% but less than 90% of its units provided complete or partial data; and a nonrespondent if less than 50% of the units provided data. Of the 692 eligible schools, 680 schools (98.3%) were complete respondents, 7 schools (1.0%) were partial respondents, and 5 schools (0.7%) were nonrespondents.


Institutions

Institutional response rates were calculated using the same thresholds for unit response used for schools. Of the 574 eligible institutions, 564 institutions (98.3%) were complete respondents, 6 institutions (1.0%) were partial respondents, and 4 institutions (0.7%) were nonrespondents.


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Retrieval and Editing


Data quality is ensured by interactive edit checks built into the Web survey and a comprehensive review after the data are submitted by the coordinator. The Web survey edits verify that the data entered are internally consistent and within an expected range often based on the previous year's data. Unit respondents are asked to explain the discrepancy whenever counts differ substantially from that of the previous year.

Postsubmission data quality checks were implemented in 2010 to identify questionable data that need further review. These quality checks were conducted when counts remained identical and also for changes to the unit list, total counts, and distribution of counts. Changes to the unit list included all unit additions and deletions and also changes to the highest degree-granted status, GSS code, and unit name. Total count changes were reviewed if they fluctuated significantly from the 2009 data, were greater than five and went to/from zero, or were more than two standard deviations away from the mean change for that total. Significant changes to the distribution of counts by race/ethnicity, gender, or primary funding type were also reviewed, as were all cases where the responses provided in any given grid were greater than five and unchanged from the previous survey cycle or identical to the data provided for a different grid or unit in the same school in the same survey cycle.

Data fluctuations that were not sufficiently explained by the comments provided by the respondents during data collection were flagged for follow-up by telephone call to the coordinator. Revisions were made directly in the Web survey by the coordinator, unit respondents, or GSS contractor staff at the direction of the coordinator. See "Known or Suspected Sources of Nonsampling Error," below, for a discussion of the types of measurement error detected in the 2010 data review and retrieval process.


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Item Nonresponse and Imputation


There were 370 data items in 2010: 200 original items and 170 new items. Overall, item nonresponse rates ranged from 1.2% to 8.3%, with a mean of 5.1%. The nonresponse rates for new items were slightly higher than the rates for original items (table 2).


TABLE 2. Item nonresponse rates, overall (original and new): 2010
  Minimum Maximum Mean
Overall 1.2% 8.3% 5.1%
Original items 1.2% 7.4% 4.7%
New items 4.5% 8.3% 5.6%


The vast majority of the new data items collected were from new questions introduced in 2010, but a small number of data items were revised questions with different response categories and in a different format from those collected in previous survey cycles. Given that these new data items have no historical data on which to base imputation, missing values in these data were not imputed in 2010. These data items are noted with a "_U" at the end of the variable name in the GSS public use file. For the remaining 200 data items, all missing data were imputed.

Different imputation techniques were used for extant units and new units. For units with at least 1 year of reported or imputed data, a carry-forward imputation method was used. Inflation factors were calculated for four key totals to account for year-to-year change. The previous year's key totals were then multiplied by these inflation factors to calculate the imputed values for the current year's key totals. Finally, all other variables were imputed by distributing the imputed key totals according to the previous year's proportions. The same procedure was used in the 2008 and 2009 imputations. In 2007 the carry-forward method was used only if the unit reported data within the previous 5 years. This condition was lifted in 2008 because simulations using the 2007 data revealed that the carry-forward method performed better than other methods, even if the previous data were reported more than 20 years ago.

When no reported or imputed data existed for a unit in a prior survey cycle, a different approach was needed. For new units with reported totals but no details in 2010, a nearest-neighbor imputation method was used. In this method, a donor unit that was nearest to the unit whose data were being imputed (imputee) was identified among all responding units having similar characteristics as the imputee (such as having the same GSS code and offering a Ph.D. degree). When graduate student details were being imputed, the nearest neighbor selected had full-time and part-time graduate enrollments that were most similar to the imputee's enrollments. When postdoc and NFR details were being imputed, the total number of postdocs was used to choose the nearest neighbor. The imputed values were calculated by adjusting the donor's values to account for the difference in full-time and part-time enrollment totals between the two units.

In rare circumstances when no data were available from a new unit, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) completions and enrollment data were used to estimate graduate student totals and details. This approach was instituted with the 2008 survey cycle based on research that demonstrated its superiority over a nearest-neighbor method under these conditions. Because IPEDS does not collect data on postdocs and NFR, a nearest neighbor was selected from the 2010 GSS data to estimate these counts.

Tables A-5 through A-12 show imputed data and/or imputation rates for different categories.


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Known or Suspected Sources of Nonsampling Error


Review of the data, cognitive interviews, usability tests, pilot tests, site visits, and other methodological activities conducted with the institutions have pointed to several possible sources of measurement error. These situations are discussed below, along with any steps taken to minimize the impact on the data, where applicable.

Data review and telephone interviews conducted with coordinators have revealed overreporting of graduate students working toward practitioner degrees, particularly in health fields. Starting with the 2007 survey cycle, survey materials instructed that students pursuing master's, DDS, or MD degrees in 24 specified fields should be excluded. After the change in survey materials, coordinators often provided a comment explaining that they were deleting a unit because the unit's degrees were practitioner based. These comments provide some indication that the explicit instructions may have reduced reporting error. However, the data quality control process in 2009 indicated that some coordinators were still reporting graduate students in practitioner-based degree programs. Many coordinators revised downward the total count of graduate students in fields with degree exclusions, particularly among nursing units, after being contacted about questionable data. Systematic checks for this type of measurement error ensure that coordinators are aware of the degree exclusions and are reporting data appropriately. In the 2011 survey cycle, checks will be built into the Web survey to remind respondents to exclude students pursuing practitioner-based degrees.

Data review and retrieval indicated that zeros reported by respondents sometimes represent nonresponse rather than actual zero counts. Not distinguishing between the two could result in low estimates, given that data for a given variable are not imputed when item nonresponse is misinterpreted as a zero response. In 2007, to distinguish zero-entered responses from true nonresponses, a checkbox was added for the respondent to confirm a zero entry. Although this helped to reduce substantially the number of ambiguous zero counts, counts for the subgroups still had similar problems.

In 2010 the survey instrument was revised to collect the subgroup counts directly, eliminating most instances of ambiguous zeros. The one exception was for first-time, full-time graduate students. These data were checked for ambiguous zero counts, and follow-up calls with respondents were made to clarify responses, as needed.

Methodological research, data review and retrieval, and feedback from respondents indicated that graduate students' financial support data were difficult for respondents to report and, therefore, more prone to measurement error than other survey data. Difficulties in reporting these data may occur because the information may not be stored in one centralized database; financial support may not always be channeled through the institution (e.g., self-support); and foreign sources of support may not always be known. Respondents may also have difficulty categorizing financial information by field, such as when a student is enrolled in one unit but receives support from another. Finally, institutions define mechanisms of support differently (e.g., fellowships vs. traineeships) and may report individuals according to the institution's definition rather than that provided by the GSS.

Usability tests conducted with respondents in 2008 showed that there had been some misreporting of race and ethnicity that may have been due to the format of the GSS race/ethnicity questions. The format reflected NSF's interpretation of the Office and Management and Budget's (OMB's) 1997 revision of its standards on collecting these data. In 1999, GSS began collecting data on Hispanics of one race separately from data on multiracial Hispanics, although this was not necessary for compliance with the revised OMB standards. The cognitive interviews revealed that black Hispanics and white Hispanics were sometimes counted in the "Hispanic, More than one race" category, rather than in the appropriate "Only one race, Hispanic" category. In 2008, these two Hispanic categories were collapsed into one: "Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (one or more races)." Subsequent cognitive interviews indicated that the new grouping was easier for respondents to understand.

Increasing numbers of students are choosing not to report their race to their institution, leading to growth over time in the "Unknown/race not stated" GSS category. This leads to gradual declines in the proportion of students reported in some racial and ethnic groups. This trend is not unique to GSS.

Interviews and usability tests with respondents as well as data review and retrieval efforts have found that data on postdocs and NFRs are particularly challenging for some respondents to report. Many respondents indicate in the Web survey that they are unable to provide data on their unit's postdocs or NFRs. Starting with the 2010 survey cycle, schools were given the option of appointing a separate postdoc coordinator who may be more knowledgeable about the postdocs or NFRs at their school to provide these data.

Anecdotal evidence indicated that some misreporting may have occurred when an institution had more than one coordinator or offered joint programs, although written instructions emphasized that each individual should be counted only once. To reduce double counting, facilitate inter-institution communication, and allow sharing of reported data, a screen in the Web survey provides names and contact information for all school coordinators at the institution.


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Data Revisions


In 2007 the GSS discontinued the practice of revising previous years' data based on changes the institutions report in units' eligibility and institutions' doctorate-granting status in the current survey cycle. Previously, reported counts for a given year fluctuated with each annual report because the current year's eligibility and doctorate-granting status changes were applied retrospectively to all years in the DSTs. Except for table 25, counts in the 2010 DSTs for 2004–06 reflect eligibility and doctorate-granting status as of fall 2006; they have not been adjusted to reflect changes in status that may have occurred between fall 2006 and fall 2010.

Table 25 historically has listed and ranked each institution that was doctorate granting in the current survey cycle, regardless of doctoral degree–granting status or eligibility in previous years. These rules have been continued in 2010. Thus, in table 25, data in years 2004–09 are counts of graduate students in those institutions that were doctorate granting in 2010, and totals for 2004–09 in this table differ from totals for 2004–09 in other tables for doctorate-granting institutions in this report.

When requested by the institution, the GSS will replace imputed estimates with actual data, but only for the most recent survey cycle. No such requests were made in the 2010 survey cycle.


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Definitions


Data collected in 2010 included demographic and funding information for graduate students, postdocs, and NFRs. Definitions of key terms follow.


Enrollment Status

Full-time and part-time—Respondents were instructed to use their institution's definition.

First-time—Students enrolled for credit in a graduate degree program in an organizational unit for the first time in fall 2010. This may include graduate students previously enrolled in another graduate degree program at the institution or at another institution. It may also include students who already hold another graduate or professional degree.


Race and Ethnicity

The GSS uses definitions of race/ethnicity that are based on the OMB's "Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity":

Hispanic or Latino (one or more races)[4]—All individuals of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Includes individuals who are Hispanic or Latino and any other race(s).

Non-Hispanic/Latino—Individuals who are not Hispanic or Latino descent, regardless of race.

American Indian or Alaska Native—A person of only one race having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America) and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.

Asian—A person of only one race having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent—for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Black or African American—A person of only one race having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.

Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander—A person of only one race having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific islands.

White—A person of only one race having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

More than one race—A person of two or more of the race categories listed above.

Unknown race/ethnicity—A person whose ethnicity or race is unknown or not stated.

The survey began collecting Asian and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander data separately in 1999; the past reports and DSTs reported the data for these groups as a combined category because less than 0.5% of graduate students have been reported in the Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander category. Starting in 2010, these two categories are reported separately.

From 1999 through 2007, the survey forms collected counts of Hispanics of one race separately from counts of Hispanics reporting two or more races. However, reports and DSTs in these years combined these data in one Hispanic or Latino category because no more than 0.5% of graduate students were classified as multiracial Hispanics. In 2008 the survey forms combined these categories into a single Hispanic or Latino category.

The past reports and DSTs prior to 2010 reported the non-Hispanic/Latino multiracial category with those of unknown race as a combined category because no more than 0.2% of graduate students were identified as such. Starting in 2010, these two categories are reported separately.


Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)—Institutions of higher education that have been historically considered to enroll predominantly black students. The Department of Education maintains an official list of HBCUs, which is reviewed annually.


Graduate Student Mechanisms of Financial Support

Fellowship—A competitive award (often from a national competition) given to a graduate student that requires no work of the recipient.

Traineeship—A financial award given to a graduate student selected by the institution.

Research assistantship—A financial award given to a graduate student where most of the student's responsibilities are devoted primarily to research.

Teaching assistantship—A financial award given to a graduate student where most of the student's responsibilities are devoted primarily to teaching assistant activities.

Other support—All other mechanisms of support for graduate students.


Graduate Student Source of Financial Support

Federal sources—Financial support provided by the federal agencies. Excludes federally guaranteed student loans.

Nonfederal sources—Financial support from state and local government; institutional support, such as tuition waivers and stipends, support from foreign sources, such as foreign government, foreign firms, and agencies of the United Nations; and other U.S. sources, such as support from nonprofit institutions, private industry, and all other nonfederal U.S. sources.

Self-support—Supported by loans (including federal loans) or personal or family financial contributions.


Postdoctoral Researchers (Postdocs)

Postdoc—The definition of a postdoc varies by institution. Respondents were instructed to use their institution's definition of a postdoc. NSF defines a postdoc as meeting both of the following qualifications:

  1. Holds a recent doctoral degree, generally awarded within the last 5–7 years, such as
    – PhD or equivalent (e.g., ScD, DEng), or
    – First-professional degree in a medical or related field (e.g., MD, DDS, DO, DVM), or
    – Foreign degree equivalent to a U.S. doctoral degree
  2. Has a limited-term appointment, generally no more than 5–7 years,
    – Primarily for training in research or scholarship, and
    – Working under the supervision of a senior scholar in a unit affiliated with the institution

Mechanisms of Financial Support for Postdocs

Fellowship—A competitive award (often from a national competition) given to a postdoc that requires no work of the recipient.

Traineeship—A financial award given to a postdoc selected by the institution.

Research grant—A financial assistance award given to an organization or an individual postdoc that supports specific research goals.

Other support—All other mechanisms of support for postdocs.


Sources of Financial Support for Postdocs

Federal sources—Financial support provided by the federal agencies.

Nonfederal sources—Financial support from state and local government; institutional support, support from foreign sources, such as foreign government, foreign firms, and agencies of the United Nations; and other U.S. sources, such as support from nonprofit institutions, private industry, and all other nonfederal U.S. sources.

Personal resources—The personal and family financial resources, including federal and other loans.

Unknown or not stated—Sources of financial support for the postdoc are unknown or cannot be determined.


Nonfaculty Researchers

Nonfaculty researchers—All doctorate-holding researchers who (1) are not considered either postdoctoral researchers or members of the faculty, and (2) are involved principally in S&E or health research activities. Also referred to as Other Doctorate-Holding Nonfaculty Researchers.


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Historical Changes


Changes have been made to the coverage and content of the GSS to keep it relevant to the needs of data users. Such changes prevent precise maintenance of trend data; therefore, some data items are not available for all institutions in all years. Major changes in the data collected (with the year in which changes became effective) include the following:


Data Revisions

1988–2006 Retrospective revisions of estimates based on changes in unit eligibility began in 1988 and continued through 2006. Data for units no longer eligible were removed from counts that were originally published from 1975 through 1988, and revised estimates were produced. These changes resulted in reduction in total enrollments and social sciences enrollments for all years.
1992–2006 Starting in 1992, annual reporting revised retrospectively to reflect degree-granting status (master's or doctorate) of institution responding to current survey cycle. Over years, several master's-granting institutions became doctorate-granting institutions, and a few doctorate-granting institutions became master's-granting institutions. As consequence, enrollment data in these institutions were reclassified to reflect their degree-granting status as of most recent survey cycle. This practice was discontinued in 2007.


Demographic Characteristics

Sex

1975 Master's-granting institutions first requested to provide data on full-time graduate students by sex.
1977 Data on part-time graduate students by sex collected from master's-granting institutions for first time.
1978 Doctorate-granting institutions received short form of GSS that collected selected data items. Short form did not request any information on sex, and 1978 figures in DSTs represent estimates based on 1977 and 1979 data. Master's-granting institutions were not surveyed.
1979 Data on sex requested for all graduate students at all institutions.
1993 Began collecting race/ethnicity data on all graduate students by sex.
2008 Began collecting number of first-time, full-time male graduate students by race/ethnicity; full-time male graduate students by source of support; male postdocs by source of support; and male doctorate-holding nonfaculty researchers. Previously, number of men was inferred by subtracting number of women from total.
2010 Began collecting citizenship and race/ethnicity data on postdocs by sex.

Race/ethnicity

1979 Began collecting race/ethnicity data for full-time and part-time graduate students who were U.S. citizens as optional data item; collection of this information became official part of GSS in 1980.
1992 Began including permanent residents with counts of U.S. citizens. Beginning in 1992, race/ethnicity data collected for full-time and part-time graduate students include permanent residents.
1993 Began collecting race/ethnicity data by sex.
1999

Presented respondents with new race/ethnicity categories. "Asian/Other Pacific Islander" category used in previous years' surveys became two categories: "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander." Also, survey included two new categories: "More than one race Hispanic/Latino" and "More than one race non-Hispanic/Latino." 1999 survey excluded "other" category that had been included in previous years' surveys.

Although new race/ethnicity categories were added in 1999, reports and DSTs combined data into previous categories because no more than 0.5% of graduate students were reported in "Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander" and "More than one race" categories each year. From 1999–2009, reports and DSTs reported data on "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander" categories in combined "Asian/Other Pacific Islander" category; data on "One race, only Hispanic/Latino" and "More than one race, Hispanic/Latino" categories in "Hispanic" category; and data on "More than one race non-Hispanic/Latino" and "Unknown or did not state race/ethnicity" categories in combined "Other or unknown" category.

2008 Race/ethnicity categories revised to correspond to IPEDS by combining "Hispanic/Latino, One race only," and "Hispanic/Latino, More than one race," categories into "Hispanic/Latino (one or more races)."
2010 Began collecting race/ethnicity data for postdocs using same categories as in graduate students.

Citizenship

1972–79 Collected citizenship data for graduate students selectively in these years. These data are not included in data file.
1977 Began collecting citizenship data for postdocs.
1978 Doctorate-granting institutions received short form of GSS that did not collect any data on postdocs. Master's-granting institutions not surveyed.
1980 Citizenship data collected for all graduate students enrolled full-time. These data have been included in data file since 1980.
1982 Citizenship data collected for all graduate students enrolled part-time. These data have been included in data file since 1982.
1992 Definitions of foreign students and U.S. citizens changed to match those used by NCES. Starting in 1992, GSS began including permanent residents with count of U.S. citizens instead of with count of foreign students.
2008 Clarification made for "non-U.S. citizens" to exclude non-U.S. citizens residing outside United States who are enrolled in online degree program at U.S. institution.
2010 Began collecting citizenship data on postdocs using same categories as used for graduate students. In previous years, only counts of postdocs who are foreign nationals holding temporary visas were collected.


Enrollment Status

1975 Graduate institutions that granted only master's degrees asked to provide estimates for number of full- and part-time students.
1999 Began collecting data on first-time, full-time enrollment by race/ethnicity and sex; citizenship data were collected but first reported in 2000.


Graduate Student Support

1978 GSS did not collect data on mechanisms of support but did so on sources of support for full-time students. Because actual mechanisms of support were unknown, data were reported only as "other." Master's-granting institutions not surveyed.
1979 Began collecting separate data on mechanisms of support for fellowships and traineeships. (Prior years had combined these mechanisms.)
1985 Began collecting separate data on students receiving their primary support from U.S. Department of Agriculture.
1996 Began collecting separate data on students receiving their primary support from National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
1999 Began collecting separate data on students receiving their primary support from U.S. Department of Energy.
2008 Data no longer collected for National Institutes of Health (NIH) teaching assistantships because NIH does not offer financial support to graduate students through this mechanism.
  Began collecting number of full-time graduate students whose largest source of support came from non-U.S. source via teaching assistantship.


Postdocs and NFRs

1972 Began collecting sources and mechanisms of financial support for postdocs and/or research associates as one combined category.
1977 Began collecting information on foreign postdocs and/or research associates.
1979 Changed "research associates" to "nonfaculty research staff with doctorates" and began collecting separate data on postdocs and nonfaculty research staff. GSS also began collecting information by sex. At this time, data item "sources of support by mechanism of support" was collected only for postdocs; it was not collected for other nonfaculty research staff with doctorates.
1979 Began collecting separate data on mechanisms of support for federal fellowships and federal traineeships. (Prior years had combined these mechanisms.)
1983 Began collecting information on postdocs' medical degree status.
2010

Began collecting race/ethnicity data for postdocs who are U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Began collecting data on largest source of financial support, and largest mechanism of support separately for postdocs. Mechanism of support (fellowship, traineeship, research grant) nonfederal sources of support was replaced with "other support."

Began collecting more detailed information on postdocs' and doctorate-holding nonfaculty researchers' doctoral degree type. Categories were added for those holding both doctoral (e.g., PhD, ScD) and professional degrees (e.g., MD, DVM) and for whom type of degree was unknown.

Postdocs' type of degree began being collected by citizenship. Additionally, country of origin (U.S., foreign, unknown) of postdocs' doctoral degrees started being collected.

Doctorate-holding nonfaculty researchers' type of degree began being collected by sex.



Survey Instrument

1975–77 Data for master's-granting institutions collected on abbreviated form of GSS (short form).
1978 Doctorate-granting institutions received short form of GSS, collecting selected data items; master's-granting institutions were not surveyed. Figures for 1978 for total enrollment and full-time enrollment in master's-granting institutions are estimates based on 1977 and 1979 data.
1979 All graduate institutions surveyed using same form; full-scale survey resumed.
1998 GSS made Web-based reporting system available to school coordinators and unit respondents.


Survey Universe

Institutions Surveyed

1966–71 Data collected from limited number of doctorate-granting institutions through NSF Graduate Traineeship Program. Data are not comparable with data from 1972 through 2007.
1972–74 Beginning with 1972 survey, NSF assigned this data collection effort to Universities and Nonprofit Institutions Studies Group and gradually expanded effort during 1972–74 to include all institutions known to have programs leading to doctorate or master's degree. These data are not comparable with data collected before 1972 or after 1974. NSF has not inflated data for 1966–74 to reflect universe totals.
1975 Graduate institutions that granted only master's degrees in science, engineering, and health fields asked to provide estimates for number of full- and part-time students and number of postdocs or research associates.
1975–77 Data for master's-granting institutions collected on abbreviated form of GSS (short form).
1978 Doctorate-granting institutions received short form of GSS collecting selected data items; master's-granting institutions were not surveyed. Figures for 1978 for total enrollment and full-time enrollment in master's-granting institutions are estimates based on 1977 and 1979 data.
1979 All graduate institutions surveyed using same form; full-scale survey resumed.
1984–87 Survey design changed to stratified random sample with certainty stratum that included all doctorate-granting institutions; all master's-granting, historically black colleges and universities; and all land-grant institutions. The remaining master's-granting institutions were divided into two sample strata, based on enrollment size. Enrollment data for 1984–87 have been adjusted to reflect universe totals.
1988 Surveying entire eligible survey population resumed for first time since 1983. Since 1988 GSS has attempted to cover all academic institutions that grant master's degrees or research doctorates in science, engineering, and selected health fields.
1992 Definition of medical schools revised during fall 1992 survey cycle to include only those institutional components that are members of Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Tables generated after fall 1992 survey differ from their counterparts in earlier years in that they exclude schools of nursing, public health, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and other health-related disciplines and should not be compared with tables from earlier years.
2005 Because of Hurricane Katrina, data for Tulane University and Loyola University New Orleans were not included, and Louisiana State University (LSU) data are for Graduate School (Baton Rouge) and Health Sciences Center (Shreveport) only; the two New Orleans campuses of LSU were closed. Data from these schools were not available and were not imputed.
2008 Three members of AAMC added to GSS: Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy, Universidad Central del Caribe School of Medicine, and University of Missouri–Kansas City School of Medicine.

GSS-Eligible Fields

1966–71 Data collected only for S&E fields supported by NSF from limited number of doctorate-granting institutions through NSF Graduate Traineeship Program. NSF has made no attempt to inflate data for 1966–71 to reflect universe totals.
1972–75 Beginning with 1972 survey, NSF assigned this data collection effort to Universities and Nonprofit Institutions Studies Group and gradually expanded effort during period 1972–75 to include additional S&E fields and selected health fields. Because of this expansion, data for 1974 and earlier years are not strictly comparable with data from 1975 and later. NSF has not inflated data for 1972–74 to reflect universe totals.
1988 NSF reviewed and tightened criteria for including departments in survey universe. NSF considered those departments that were not primarily oriented toward granting research degrees as no longer meeting definition of S&E. As a result of this review, NSF determined that several departments, especially in field of "social sciences, not elsewhere classified," were engaged primarily in training teachers, practitioners, administrators, or managers rather than researchers; consequently, NSF deleted these departments from the database. NSF continued this process throughout 1989–2006 and expanded it to ensure trend consistency for entire period from 1975 through 2006. As result of these changes, total enrollments and social sciences enrollments were reduced for all years.
2007 NSF reviewed and updated classification scheme of GSS-eligible S&E and health fields. New scheme first used in 2007 survey cycle. Three newly eligible fields were added, some degree-granting programs became ineligible, and others were reclassified. Practitioner-based fields deemed ineligible.


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Data Availability


NSF's National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) releases the data from this survey annually in its Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering InfoBrief and DSTs series. The information from this survey is also included in the publications Science and Engineering Indicators and Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering. NSF includes selected data items from this survey for individual doctorate-granting institutions in the NCSES Academic Institutional Profiles series (http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/profiles/).

Data from this survey are available through the WebCASPAR data system (http://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/webcaspar/). Public-use data files in Excel, SAS, and SPSS formats and the guide to the public-use data files are available for the years 1972–2010 at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvygradpostdoc/pub_data.cfm.



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Changes in the Detailed Statistical Tables


The published tables on graduate students were reduced from 73 tables in 2009 to 26 tables in 2010. The unpublished tables are available on request. The 3 tables on postdocs in the 2009 report were expanded to 24 tables in the 2010 report to provide similar details on the postdocs as the graduate students. The complete list of tables produced in 2010 is shown in exhibit 1. The published tables are designated by table number in the first column. The remaining tabulations, designated as "supplemental table," are available on request from the GSS Project Officer.


EXHIBIT 1. Publiished tables, crosswalk to prior-year tables, and supplemental tabulations available for the 2010 Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering
2010 GSS
published
table
Prior-year
crosswalk and
supplemental
data table
Table title
Graduate students in science engineering and health
1 1 Graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1975–2010
2 2 Graduate students in science, by science fields: 1975–2010
3 3 Graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1975–2010
S-4 Male graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1977–2010
S-5 Male graduate students in science, by science fields: 1977–2010
S-6 Male graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1977–2010
4 7 Female graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1977–2010
S-8 Female graduate students in science, by science fields: 1977–2010
S-9 Female graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1977–2010
Full-time graduate students by field
5 10 Full-time graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1975–2010
S-11 Full-time graduate students in science, by science fields: 1975–2010
S-12 Full-time graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1975–2010
S-13 Male, full-time graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1977–2010
S-14 Male, full-time graduate students in science, by science fields: 1977–2010
S-15 Male, full-time graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1977–2010
6 16 Female, full-time graduate students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1977–2010
S-17 Female, full-time graduate students in science, by science fields: 1977–2010
S-18 Female, full-time graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1977–2010
7 19 U.S. citizen and permanent resident full-time students in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1980–2010
S-20 U.S. citizen and permanent resident full-time graduate students in science, by science fields: 1980–2010
S-21 U.S. citizen and permanent resident full-time graduate students in engineering, by engineering fields: 1980–2010
8 22 Full-time graduate students with temporary visas, by field: 1980–2010
S-23 Full-time graduate students with temporary visas in science, by science fields: 1980–2010
S-24 Full-time graduate students with temporary visas in engineering, by engineering fields: 1980–2010
Graduate students in science engineering and health in all institutions: 2004–10
9 25 Graduate students, by detailed field
S-26 Male graduate students, by detailed field
10 27 Female graduate students, by detailed field
S-28 Graduate students in public institutions, by detailed field
S-29 Graduate students in private institutions, by detailed field
11 33 Full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-34 Male, full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-35 Female, full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-36 Full-time graduate students with temporary visas, by detailed field
12 42 First-time, full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-43 First-time, full-time U.S
S-44 First-time, full-time graduate students with temporary visas, by detailed field
S-45 First-time, full-time graduate students, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
13 30 Graduate students, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-31 Male graduate students, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
14 32 Female graduate students, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
15 37 Full-time graduate students, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-38 Full-time graduate students, by field and primary source of support
S-39 Full-time graduate students, by field and primary mechanism of support
S-40 Full-time graduate students in science and engineering fields, by primary mechanism and primary source of support
S-41 Full-time graduate students in health fields, by primary mechanism and primary source of support
Graduate students in science engineering and health in doctorate-granting institutions: 2004–10
16 51 Graduate students, by detailed field
17 52 Graduate students in public doctorate-granting institutions, by detailed field
S-53 Graduate students in private doctorate-granting institutions, by detailed field
18 54 Graduate students, by enrollment status, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-55 Graduate students in health fields, by enrollment status, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-56 Graduate students, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents: 2010
S-57 Full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-58 U.S. citizen and permanent resident full-time graduate students, by detailed field
S-59 Full-time graduate students with temporary visas, by detailed field
19 60 Full-time graduate students, by field and primary source of support
S-61 Full-time graduate students, by sex, primary source of support, and field: 2010
S-62 Full-time graduate students in science fields in doctorate-granting institutions, by sex, primary source of support, and field: 2010
S-63 Full-time graduate students in engineering fields in doctorate-granting institutions, by sex, primary source of support, and field: 2010
20 64 Full-time graduate students, by field and primary mechanism of support
S-65 Full-time graduate students, by detailed field and primary mechanism of support: 2010
S-66 Full-time graduate students in science and engineering fields in doctorate-granting institutions, by primary mechanism and primary source of support
S-67 Full-time graduate students in health fields in doctorate-granting institutions, by primary mechanism and primary source of support
Graduate students in science engineering and health in all institutions: 2010
21 46 Graduate students, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-47 Male graduate students, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
22 48 Female graduate students, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
23 49 Graduate students in science, by region, state, institution, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
24 50 Graduate students in engineering, by region, state, institution, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
Institutional rankings: 2004–10
25 68 by 2010 graduate student total in science, engineering, and health
Graduate students in historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs)
S-73 Graduate students in science, engineering, and health fields in historically black colleges and universities, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents: 2010
S-74 Black, non-Hispanic U.S. citizen and permanent resident graduate students in science, engineering, and health fields in all institutions and in historically black colleges and universities, by field: 2004–10
S-75 Black, non-Hispanic U.S. citizen and permanent resident graduate students in science, engineering, and health fields in all institutions and in historically black colleges and universities, by field and sex: 2006–10
S-76 Black, non-Hispanic U.S. citizen and permanent resident full-time graduate students in science, engineering, and health fields in all institutions and in historically black colleges and universities, by field: 2004–10
26 77 by field and sex: 2006–2010
Postdoctoral appointees in all institutions: all available years
27 new Postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1979–2010
28 new Postdoctoral appointees in science, by science fields: 1979–2010
29 new Postdoctoral appointees in engineering, by engineering fields: 1979–2010
S-78 Male postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1979–2010
S-79 Male postdoctoral appointees in science, by field: 1979–2010
S-80 Male postdoctoral appointees in engineering, by field: 1979–2010
30 new Female postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1979–2010
S-81 Female postdoctoral appointees in science, by field: 1979–2010
S-82 Female postdoctoral appointees in engineering, by field: 1979–2010
S-83 U.S. citizen and permanent resident postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1980–2010
S-84 U.S. citizen and permanent resident postdoctoral appointees in science, by field: 1980–2010
S-85 U.S. citizen and permanent resident postdoctoral appointees in engineering, by field: 1980–2010
31 new Postdoctoral appointees with temporary visas in science, engineering, and health, by field: 1979–2010
S-86 Postdoctoral appointees with temporary visas in science, by field: 1980–2010
S-87 Postdoctoral appointees with temporary visas in engineering, by field: 1980–2010
Postdoctoral appointees in science engineering and health in all institutions: 2004–10
32 69 Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field
S-88 Male postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by detailed field: 2004–10
33 new Female postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field
34 new Postdoctoral appointees, by field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
35 new Postdoctoral appointees in public institutions, by detailed field
36 new Postdoctoral appointees in private institutions, by detailed field
37 new Postdoctoral appointees, by field and primary source of support
Postdoctoral appointees in science engineering and health in all institutions: 2010
38 70 Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field, sex, and citizenship
39 70 Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field and primary source of support
40 new Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field and primary mechanism of support
41 new Postdoctoral appointees, by field, primary source of support, and primary mechanism of support
42 new Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-89 Male postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
43 new Female postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
44 new Postdoctoral appointees in science, by region, state, institution, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
45 new Postdoctoral appointees in engineering, by region, state, institution, citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
Institutional rankings: 2010
46 71 by number of postdoctoral appointees in science, engineering, and health, by field
Postdoctoral appointees in science engineering and health in all institutions: 2010
47 new Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field, citizenship, and doctoral degree
48 new Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field and origin of doctoral degree
49 new Postdoctoral appointees, by type of doctoral degree, primary mechanism of support, and field
50 new Postdoctoral appointees, by citizenship, ethnicity, and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents, origin of doctoral degree, and field
S-90 Postdoctoral appointees, by detailed field and doctorate degree type
S-91 Postdoctoral appointees, by sex, primary mechanism of support, and field
S-92 Postdoctoral appointees in science fields, by sex, primary mechanism of support, and field
S-93 Postdoctoral appointees in engineering fields, by sex, primary mechanism of support, and field
S-94 Postdoctoral appointees in health fields, by region, state, institution, and citizenship, and by ethnicity and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
S-95 Postdoctoral appointees, by region, state, institution, and citizenship, and by ethnicity and race of U.S. citizens and permanent residents
Nonfaculty researchers in all institutions: all available years
S-96 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-97 Nonfaculty researchers in science fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-98 Nonfaculty researchers in engineering fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-99 Male nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-100 Male nonfaculty researchers in science fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-101 Male nonfaculty researchers in engineering fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-102 Female nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-103 Female nonfaculty researchers in science fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-104 Female nonfaculty researchers in engineering fields, by field: 1979–2010
S-72 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by detailed field: 2004–10
S-105 Male nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by detailed field: 2004–10
S-106 Female nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by detailed field: 2004–10
S-107 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields in public institutions, by detailed field: 2004–10
S-108 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields in private institutions, by detailed field: 2004–10
S-109 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields in doctorate-granting institutions, by detailed field, and sex: 2010
S-110 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by detailed field and doctorate degree type: 2010
S-111 Nonfaculty researchers in science, engineering, and health fields, by region, state, and institution: 2010
S-112 Institutions ranked by number of nonfaculty researchers, by field: 2010

NOTES: Prior-year numbering for tables published in this report are in boldface. Tables designated by "S" are available on request from project officer.

The postdoc data items collected in 2010 included same or similar data items in 2009; however, these postdoc items were reformatted in some way as part of the questionnaire redesign. For example, in the past, the degree-type question simply asked the respondents, "Of the total [postdoc count], how many have an MD, DO, DDS, or DVM?" In 2010, the question was expanded and asked the respondents to report the counts of postdocs by type of doctoral degree in the following categories: "Professional degree (MD, DVM, DO, DDS)," "Doctoral degree (PhD, ScD, DEng)," "Both professional and doctoral degree (MD-PhD, DVM-PhD)," and "Doctoral degree type unknown." Also, any missing data in the new postdoc and NFR items were not imputed in 2010 owing to the lack of historical data, and they were included in "Unknown/Not Reported" category in the data tables.

Therefore, the 2010 data may not be directly comparable with prior year data because it is unclear how much change in 2010 resulted from the redesigned questions. More information on the changes in postdoc data will be available in a forthcoming InfoBrief at http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/gradpostdoc.


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Notes


[1] The research doctorate is a research degree that (1) requires an original contribution of knowledge to a field (typically, but not always, in the form of a written dissertation), and (2) is not primarily intended for the practice of a profession. For additional survey information and available data related to graduate student enrollment and postdocs in S&E, see http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/srvygradpostdoc/.

[2] In this report, the term school refers to a graduate school, medical school, dental school, nursing school, or school of public health; an affiliated research center; a branch campus; or any other organizational component within an academic institution that grants an S&E or selected health degree.

[3] See response rate 3 calculation, page 45, in AAPOR. 2011. Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys. 7th ed. AAPOR.

[4] The OMB standards designate Hispanics as an ethnic group rather than a racial group. Following these standards, Hispanic is not counted as a race in GSS. Cognitive interviews with respondents have shown that this is a source of considerable confusion. For example, black Hispanics and white Hispanics may be counted as "Hispanic, More than one race" rather than "Only one race, Hispanic." The race/ethnicity categories were aligned to IPEDS by combining the "Hispanic/Latino, More than one race," and "Hispanic/Latino, One race only," categories. In 2008 these two Hispanic categories were collapsed into one: "Hispanic/Latino ethnicity (one or more races)."


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Technical Tables


  Table Title Excel PDF
A-1 NSF data collection series: 1966–2010 view Excel. view PDF.
  Science, engineering, and health organizational units
A-2 in doctorate-granting institutions, by detailed field: 2004–10 view Excel. view PDF.
A-3 in master's-granting institutions, by detailed field: 2004–10 view Excel. view PDF.
A-4 response rates:1975–2010 view Excel. view PDF.
  Imputation, by field and graduate enrollment or postdoctoral status: 2008–10
A-5 for nonresponse in doctorate-granting institutions view Excel. view PDF.
A-6 for nonresponse in master's-granting institutions view Excel. view PDF.
  Imputation rates for graduate students and postdoctoral appointees in surveyed fields: 2010
A-7 full-time graduate students, by source and mechanism of support view Excel. view PDF.
A-8 graduate students, by citizenship, race/ethnicity, enrollment status, and sex view Excel. view PDF.
A-9 postdoctoral appointees and nonfaculty researchers view Excel. view PDF.
  Imputed graduate students and postdoctoral appointees in surveyed fields: 2010
A-10 full-time graduate students, by source and mechanism of support view Excel. view PDF.
A-11 graduate students, by citizenship, race/ethnicity, enrollment status, and sex view Excel. view PDF.
A-12 postdoctoral appointees and nonfaculty researchers view Excel. view PDF.


 
Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 2010
Detailed Statistical Tables | NSF 13-314 | April 2013