Foreword


The adequacy of future human resources for science and engineering is an important issue for the United States. In 1993, the Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS) published an initial report on Human Resources for Science and Technology: The Asian Region. This current report is designed to further the understanding of global science and technology resources by providing a reliable database and analysis for the European region, which has a high concentration of the world's scientific resources. This report was prepared to provide information for U.S. decisionmakers in their assessments of trends in globalization, particularly on human resources. Many national and international organizations are interested in this topic. For example, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Commission of the European Communities, and the International Council of Scientific Unions have been active in discussing these topics. This report complements and supplements the National Science Board's Science and Engineering Indicators volumes and several other reports prepared by the Division of Science Resources Studies.

Jeanne E. Griffth, Director
Division of Science Resources Studies
Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences

November, 1996

Acknowledgments


This report was prepared by Jean M. Johnson, Senior Science Resources Analyst, Science and Engineering Indicators (IND) Program, Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS), National Science Foundation.

The database developed to prepare this report builds on data provided by the Division of Statistics of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the Center for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Through an annual survey sent to more than 150 countries, UNESCO gathers worldwide data on higher education, research, and other dimensions of development, which it has generously provided to NSF. The report utilizes the research and development data from the OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators.

To verify and update the UNESCO and OECD degree data, NSF was fortunate in receiving full cooperation from individuals in Ministries of Education and in science and technology indicator groups in each of the European countries studied in this report. I n addition to their other contributions, these individuals have provided their national primary sources on higher education so that NSF could develop a reliable data base on human resources for science and technology. Their names, affiliations and addresses are listed in the Contacts section of the report. This voluntary exchange of information is very encouraging and will assist SRS in completing other regional profiles. Jennifer Sue Bond, Director of the Science and Engineering Indicators Program within SRS, supported the continuation of this research on human resources within the Division, suggested contacts in each of the European countries, and provided relevant OECD and national publications. William Blanpied, of the Division of International Programs, read an early draft and provided many useful suggestions and additional information on institutions of higher education.

The report also benefited from the comments provided by other colleagues in the Division of International Programs, and several external peer reviewers, including E. Stephen Hunt of the U.S. Department of Education, Philip W. Hemily of the National Research Council, Philip Altbach of the University of Boston, Peter Syverson of the Council of Graduate Schools, Richard A. Ellis of the American Association of Engineering Societies, Erika Rost of the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Te chnology in Germany, Kirsten Wille Maus of the Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education, Serge Plattard, Science Counselor of the French Embassy, Helen Connor of the University of Sussex, Lennart Stenberg of the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, and Ian R. Perry of the Commission of the European Communities. Overall guidance and review were provided by Jennifer Sue Bond and Kenneth M. Brown. Editing of the report was performed by Friday Systems Services.


Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgments
Acronyms
Overview

  • Implications for the United States

  • Implications for Research
    Implications for Science and Engineering Education
    Implications for Science Assistance Programs
  • Research Approach

  • Regional Summary

  • Human Resources

  • Enrollment in Higher Education
    University Degrees in the Natural Sciences and Engineering
    Demographic Changes
    Participation Rates in Natural Science and Engineering Degrees
    Foreign Students in European Universities
    International Mobility
  • Research and Development Expenditures

  • Sources of Research and Development Funds
    Science and Engineering Personnel
  • Gross Domestic Product

  • European Cooperation in Research and Development

  • Framework Programs for Research and Technological Development
    EUREKA
    Other European Cooperation in Research and Development

    Country Profiles

  • Germany

  • Institutions
    Science and Engineering Degree Trends
    Doctoral Reform in Germany
    Foreign Students
    Research and Development
  • France

  • Institutions
    Doctoral Reform in France
    Research and Development
  • United Kingdom

  • Institutions
    Science and Engineering Degree Trends
    Foreign Students
    Research and Development
  • Other Countries of the European Union

  • Italy
    Spain
    The Netherlands
    Belgium
    Denmark
    Ireland
    Greece
    Portugal
    Sweden
    Finland
    Austria
  • European Free Trade Association

  • Norway
    Switzerland
  • Central and Eastern Europe

  • Prospects for the Future
    References
    Notes on Data Series
    Contacts
    Appendix Tables

    Text tables
    1.First university degrees in science and engineering, by region: 1992
    2.Doctoral degrees in science and engineering, by region: 1992
    3.Foreign student enrollment in higher education in selected European countries: various years
    4.Foreign student enrollment in higher education in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, by region of origin: various years
    5.Support for research and development and science and engineering personnel, by level of per capita gross domestic product in selected European countries and the United States: 1991
    6.Changes in the priorities of European Union framework research and development programs as a percentage of total program budget
    7.EUREKA projects, by technology area: 1992
    8.First higher education degrees in science and engineering in Germany, by type of institution: 1992
    9.Percentage of science and engineering degrees in higher education earned by foreign students in major industrial countries: various years
    10.Percentage of science and engineering doctoral degrees earned by women in selected countries, by field: 1992
    11.Level of research support for Grand Programs in France: 1993, by program area
    12.Percent of first university science and engineering degrees earned by men and women in selected European countries: 1992

    Figures
    1. Proportion of first university degrees in natural sciences and engineering in Western European countries and the United States
    2.Growth in enrollment in higher education in selected European countries and regions
    3.First university degrees awarded in natural sciences and engineering in Western European countries and the United States
    4.First university degrees in natural sciences in selected European countries
    5.First university degrees in engineering in selected European countries
    6.Number of 20- to 24-year-olds in European countries and the United States: 1975-2000 (projected)
    7.Percentage of 24-year-olds with first university degrees in natural sciences and engineering in selected European countries
    8.Total research and development expenditures in Western Europe and the United States
    9.Non-defense research and development expenditures in Western Europe and the United States
    10.Industrially funded research and development in Western Europe and the United States
    11.Research and development in selected European countries and the United States: 1992
    12.Research and development expenditures in selected European countries
    13.Scientists and engineers in research and development in selected European countries
    14.Gross domestic product in Western European countries and the United States
    15.Growth in the gross domestic product in selected European countries
    16.First higher education degrees in science and engineering in Germany, by field
    17.Science and engineering doctoral degrees in Germany, by field
    18.Growth in research and development in Germany
    19.First university degrees in science and engineering in France
    20.Growth in research and development expenditures in France
    21.First university degrees in science and engineering in the United Kingdom, by field
    22.Doctoral degrees in the United Kingdom, by field
    23.Growth in research and development in the United Kingdom
    24.Research and development in Italy, by performer
    25.Research and development in Spain, by source of funds
    26.Ratio of university enrollment in higher education to the 20- to 24-year-old population in selected European countries
    27.Science and engineering degrees as a percentage of all first university degrees in selected countries, by sex: 1992
    28.Percent of gross domestic product in research and development in European Union countries: 1992
    29.Ratio of science and engineering degrees to total first university degrees in selected European countries and the United States: 1992
    30.Percentage of college age cohort with first university and natural science and engineering degrees, by sex: 1992

    Appendix tables
    1.Participation rate of 24-year-olds in first university degrees in the natural sciences and engineering, by region/country: 1992 or most current year
    2.Proportion of total first university degrees obtained in science and engineering in selected European countries and the United States: 1975-92
    3.Doctoral degrees in science and engineering, by country/region: 1992
    4.Enrollment in higher education in European countries and the United States: 1975-91
    5.First university degrees in science and engineering in selected European countries and the United States: 1975-92
    6.Population of 20- to 24-year-olds in European countries and the United States: 1975-2010 (projected)
    7.Participation rate of college age cohort in first university degrees in all fields in selected European countries and the United States: 1975-92
    8.Participation rate of the college age cohort in natural sciences and engineering in selected European countries and the United States: 1975-92
    9.Total research and development expenditures in European countries and the United States: 1975-93; Non-defense expenditures in European countries and the United States: 1981-92
    10.Research and development expenditures in European countries and the United States, by performer: 1975-92
    11.Research and development expenditures in European countries and the United States, by source of funds: 1975-92
    12.Estimated full-time equivalent scientists and engineers employed in research and development and total labor force in Western European countries and the United States: 1975-91
    13.Total population in European countries and the United States: 1975-2000 (projected)
    14.Gross domestic product in European countries and the United States: 1975-93
    15.U.S. patents granted to inventors from selected European countries: 1980-93
    16.First university degrees in science and engineering in selected European countries, by field: 1975-92
    17.First university degrees in science and engineering earned by women in selected European countries and the United States, by field: 1981-92
    18.First university degrees in science and engineering earned by women in selected European countries and the United States: 1981-92
    19.Doctoral degrees in science and engineering in Germany and the United Kingdom, by sex and field: 1975-92
    20.Share of science and engineering degrees obtained by males and females in selected European countries and the United States: 1992 or most current year
    21.Science and engineering degrees as a percentage of total first university degrees, by country and sex: 1992 or most current year
    22.Ratio of science and engineering degrees to total first university degrees, by region/country: 1992 or most current year
    23.Ratio of enrollments in higher education to the 20- to 24-year-old population in European countries and the United States: 1975-91
    24.Enrollment in higher education in European countries and the United States, by type of institution: 1991
    25.Participation rate of college age cohort in first university degrees in the natural sciences and engineering, by sex and country: 1992 or most current year

    Acronyms
    CERNEuropean Center for Nuclear Research
    ECEuropean Community
    EFTAEuropean Free Trade Agreement
    ESRFEuropean Synchrotron Radiation Facility
    EUEuropean Union
    FTEFull-time equivalent
    GDPGross domestic product
    LHCLarge Hadron Collider
    NS&ENatural science and engineering
    NSFNational Science Foundation
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    PPP$Purchasing power parity dollars
    R&DResearch and development
    RSEResearch scientist and engineer
    S&EScience and engineering
    S&TScience and technology
    UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization