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National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies,The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States, Special Report, NSF 97-324, by Jean M. Johnson (Arlington, VA, 1997).
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In its 1988, report, The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States, the Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS) provides some key trends on science investments and outcomes. Science and technology decision-makers and the research communities in Japan and the United States found the report useful. This report updates that report, providing data on the many changes in the funding of science and in graduate education in the United States as well as Japan.
The information presented here complements that in a number of other sources. They include special reports on Japanese science presented in several issues of Science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the reports of NSF's Tokyo office over the last several years, and the international coverage in the Science and Engineering Indicators report of National Science Board.
Jeanne E. Griffith, Director
Division of Science Resources Studies
Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences
This research was made possible by a 3-month fellowship from the Science and Technology Agency (STA) within Japan's National Institute for Science and Technology Policy (NISTEP). I received generous assistance from Naoki Murata of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (Monbusho) in the Division of University Reforms, Larry H. Weber, Masanobu Miyahara and Kazuko Shinohara of the NSF Tokyo office, and Takayoshi Seiki of Monbusho's Science and International Affairs Bureau. I was fortunate to be situated in NISTEP to carry out this STA fellowship. Prof. Ryo Hirasawa, Director of the research group in which I worked, recommended key members of the Japanese Science Policy Association for me to interview, a group that represented university professors, industrial R&D managers, and heads of government agencies that had received recent increases in R&D budgets and initiated new mechanisms for funding research. They included Kaname Ikeda, Yoichiro Hara, Shinichi Yamamoto, Shuichi Tsukahara, Shinichi Kobayashi, Eiichi Maruyama, K.˙Ikizawa, Nagayuki Marumo, Atsunobu Ichikawa, Tosiaki Ikoma, Robert Lewis, Michi Oishi, Isao Karube, Akira Arimoto, Prof. Imai, Masuo Aizawa, Sei-Ichi Takayanagi, and Masao Ito. These interviews provided background on the statistics collected and perspective on the impact of the recent changes in science policy. Within NISTEP, Fumihiko Kakizaki, Tanya Sienko, Brendan Barker, and Akira Goto also shared their relevant research.
My colleagues within the National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS), particularly Lawrence Rausch, provided me with some of the data on output indicators. Jennifer S. Bond, Program Director of the Science and Engineering Indicators Program, enthusiastically gave guidance and encouragement during my fellowship in Japan as well as in the preparation of this report within the SRS Division. Mary J. Golladay, Program Director of the Human Resources Statistics Program, Carlos E. Kruytbosch, then Program Director of the Science and Engineering Personnel Program, and Ann Lanier, Senior Analyst in SRS, reviewed the draft and provided helpful suggestions. John Jankowski, Program Director of the Research and Development Statistics Program, also carefully read the draft and suggested changes in reporting and footnotes in several R&D data series in order to yield greater consistency with other SRS reports. Anne Houghton, Julia Harriston, and Tanya Gore of SRS provided copyediting, processing, and final composition of this report. Laurie Leonard, Robert H. Brown, Heather Gowallis, Jerrilyn Heller, and Paulette Shaw of Global Associates, Ltd., provided proofreading, table and chart formatting, and composition services. Several peer reviewers provided useful comments and suggestions, including Shinichi Yamamoto, Philip Altbach, Maria Papadakis, and Ryo Hirasawa. Larry H. Weber, of NSF's Division of International Programs (who recently returned from a 5-year assignment as Director of the NSF Tokyo office), refined my understanding of recent changes in Japan in both science policy and programs.
Jean M. Johnson, Senior Analyst,
Science and Engineering Indicators Program
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