General Notes


Data in the tables of this publication were derived from the Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development, Volume 45, for fiscal years 1995-97. They reflect research and development (R&D) funding levels as reported by 33 Federal agencies in May through August 1996. All agencies that conduct R&D programs were surveyed.

R&D totals in these tables are given in both outlays and obligations. The R&D obligation data are further categorized according to character of work (basic research, applied research, and development), performer, field of science and engineering (for research but not for development), and Federal R&D funding by State. Obligations for research performance at universities and colleges by fields of science or engineering are also shown, as are R&D plant data.

The amounts reported for each year are expressed in obligations or outlays incurred, or expected to be incurred, in that year, regardless of when the funds may have been authorized, appropriated, or received by an agency and regardless of whether the funds are identified in an agency's budget specifically for research, development, or R&D plant.

Data for 1995 are actual, representing completed transactions. Data for 1996 and 1997 are estimated because they do not represent final actions. The Survey of Federal Funds for Research and Development was conducted during the third quarter of fiscal year 1996. The amounts reported for 1996 reflect congressional appropriation actions as of that period, as well as apportionment and reprogramming decisions as of that time. Data for 1997 represent administration budget proposals that had not been acted on. Authorization, appropriation, deferral, and apportionment actions that were completed after these data were collected will be reflected in later surveys of this series.

Accuracy of the data depends in part on the judgment of the respondent. Since many agency R&D programs are not identified as budget-line items, agency officials must identify R&D and R&D plant activities within broader programs. Over the years personnel of the participating agencies have developed increasing skill and consistency in meeting the survey requirements, and their interaction with the National Science Foundation staff has considerably increased the reliability of the data.

Inquiries relating to Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1995, 1996, and 1997, Volume 45 should be directed to—

Ronald L. Meeks
Research and Development Statistics Program
Division of Science Resources Studies
National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965
Arlington, VA 22230

Telephone: (703) 306-1772, ext. 6937
Fax: (703) 306-0508


For trend comparison, use only the historical data for fiscal years 1976-97 contained in tables C-89 through C-109a in this Federal funds, Volume 45 series. These tables incorporate changes in prior-year data made by the agencies to reflect program reclassifications. Do not use data published earlier.