The data presented in this report were compiled from the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) fiscal year (FY) 1996 Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges (academic R&D expenditures survey). They refer to science and engineering expenditures for separately budgeted research and development (R&D). Terms used in institutional accounting procedures are incorporated throughout the tables.
The term "separately budgeted R&D expenditures" includes all funds expended for activities specifically organized to produce research outcomes and commissioned by an agency either external to the institution or separately budgeted by an organizational unit within the institution. "Expenditures" are funds actually spent by an institution during its fiscal year. "Separately budgeted R&D equipment purchased from current funds" includes all research equipment purchased under sponsored research project awards.
"Federally funded research and development centers" (FFRDCs) are R&D-performing organizations that range from the traditional contractor-owned/contractor-operated or Government-owned/contractor-operated organizational structures to various degrees of contractor/Government control and ownership. FFRDCs are formed to achieve particular Federal R&D objectives that cannot be met as effectively by existing organizations.
The terms "imputation" and "imputed data" refer to the computerized process by which NSF develops estimates of data when institutions do not furnish the information upon request. Using this process, estimates are developed that are based primarily on key data items reported in prior years' surveys when available. When not available, estimates are based on figures derived from data of respondent institutions that have similar characteristics, including highest degree granted and type of institutional control (public or private). In this publication, the letter "i" is used to identify imputed data and the letter "e" is used when institutional respondents indicated that their data were estimated, or when data required slight mathematical adjustments.
Data presented in trend tables are assembled from the most recently completed survey cycle. Since prior years' data are reviewed for consistency with current year responses and, when necessary, are revised in consultation with institutional respondents, references to prior years' data should be restricted to this document.
Requests for additional information concerning the survey findings for the current or prior surveys should be directed to M. Marge Machen at-
Research and Development Statistics Program
Division of Science Resources Studies
National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 965
Arlington, VA 22230
Telephone: (703) 306-1772, ext. 6934