Data sources for
Science and Engineering (S&E) State Profiles
Doctoral scientists and doctoral engineers
National Science Foundation/SRS. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States 1995, NSF 97-319 (Arlington, VA, 1997).
S&E doctorates awarded
National Science Foundation/SRS. Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards 1996, NSF 97-329 (Arlington, VA, 1997).
S&E postdoctorates and S&E graduate students
National Science Foundation/SRS. Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering Fall 1995, NSF 97-312 (Arlington, VA, 1997), and unpublished tables.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Press release CB 96-224, "Population Growth Remains Fastest in Western and Southern States, Census Bureau Reports" (Washington, D.C., July 1996).
Civilian labor force
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. State and Regional Unemployment, 1996 Annual Averages (news release), USDL 97-88, March 18, 1997.
Personal income per capita
U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Survey of Current Business, Volume 77 (Washington, D.C., May 1997).
Total Federal Expenditures
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Federal Expenditures by State for Fiscal Year 1996 (Washington, D.C., April 1997).
Federal R&D obligations
National Science Foundation/SRS. Federal Funds for Research and Development FY 1995, 1996, and 1997, NSF 97-327 (Arlington, VA, 1997).
Total R&D performance
National Science Foundation/SRS. National Patterns of R&D Resources 1997 Update associated with Data Brief NSF 97-328, November 5, 1997 (Arlington, VA, 1997).
National Science Foundation/SRS. Research and Development in Industry 1995-96 (Arlington, VA, forthcoming)
National Science Foundation/SRS. Academic Science and Engineering R&D Expenditures FY 1995 (Arlington, VA, forthcoming).
Higher education current-fund expenditures
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics 1997 (Washington. D.C., 1997).
Number of SBIR awards
U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Technology. Small Business Innovation Development Act (Washington, D.C.). Annual Reports covering data for fiscal years 1990 through 1996.
Patents issued to state residents
U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent Counts by Country/State and Year: Utility Patents 1963-96, (Washington, D.C., March 1997).
Gross state product
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Analysis Division (Washington, D.C., June 1997).