Description of Terms
Field of doctorate was the field of degree as specified by the respondent in the Survey of Earned Doctorates at the time of degree conferral. Fields were aggregated into broad groups for analysis (see Appendix D).
Employment status was derived from several questions on the survey (see Appendix B ). Respondents were counted as employed (full-time or part-time) if question A1 was answered "yes." Question A7 was used to determine full-time employed (response "1") versus part-time employed (response "2"). Not employed were those with a response of "no" to question A1. Within the not employed category, seeking employment included those who responded "yes" to question A2 along with those who responded "no" to question A2 but said they were "on layoff from a job" in question A3; retired included those responding "no" to question A2 and said they were "retired" in question A3 (excluding those counted as seeking employment above); not seeking employment included all others with a response of "no" to question A2.
Employment sector was based on responses to questions A13 and A15. The category "educational institution" included preschool, elementary or middle school or system; secondary school or system; 2-year college, junior college, or technical institute; 4-year college or university; medical school; university-affiliated research institute; and "other" educational institutions. The subcategory "4-year college/university" included 4-year college or university, medical school, and "other" educational institutions. "Private for-profit company" included self-employed in incorporated business and private for-profit company, business, or individual. The "self-employed" category included self-employed in not incorporated business. The category "government" included local, state, and U.S. government (both military and civilian).
Occupation data were derived from responses to several questions on the kind of work done by the respondent. The occupation classification of the respondent was based on his or her principal job held during the reference week (question A18). Also used was a respondent-selected job code (question A19). Occupation of second job was based on responses to questions A46 and A47. Occupation codes were aggregated into broad fields for analysis (see Appendix E).