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Employment and Unemployment


Employment Status top

This chapter presents the employment status of science and engineering doctorates in 1995, describing the proportions who were employed full-time, employed part-time, or not employed (including those seeking employment, those retired, and all others not working). Those who held postdoctoral appointments were included as either full-time employed or part-time employed as appropriate.

Figure 3. Science and engineering, Ph.D.s, by field and employment status, 1995.

Reasons for Not Working top

Reasons for Working Part-Time top

Unemployment Rates top

When those who were retired and those who were not employed and not seeking work are removed from the data set, the residual is the labor force. In 1995 the size of the science and engineering labor force was 492,100 (compared with 542,500 in the total science and engineering population). The labor force is used as the base in unemployment rate calculations because it excludes those who are voluntarily not employed. The unemployment picture of science and engineering doctorates is examined in this section.


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