National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1998

Suggested Citation, Acknowledgments


Note top

Data in this report are current as of August 1998. Therefore, these data are more current (reflecting updates and revisions) than data on the same variables provided in Science and Engineering Indicators, 1998, which had been released in February 1998.

About the Cover top

This figure was Figure 1 in Marko, M. and Leith, A., "Sterecon--three-dimensional reconstruction from stereoscopic contouring" in Journal of Structural Biology, 116:93-98 (1996). Reprinted by permission of the authors and Academic Press. Copyright © 1996.

The pictures shown represent examples of data obtained by users of the Biological Microscopy and Image Reconstruction Resource, which is located within the Wadsworth Center of the New York State Department of Health ( Each was produced by contouring data obtained from 3-D light microscopic (LM) or high voltage electron microscopic (HVEM) images, using the Sterecon (stereoscopic reconstruction) system developed at the Resource. Most of these pictures, and much of the research associated with them, were made possible through grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.

Clockwise from upper left: (1) orientation of nuclear cell-division axes in a sea urchin embryo as revealed by confocal LM; (2) dendritic branches of a hippocampal neuron also from a confocal volume; (3) a mammary tumor cell invading the peritoneum reconstructed from serial thick section HVEM; (4) an HVEM tomographic reconstruction of a rat-liver mitochondrion from a single thick section; (5) a human lymphocyte with abnormal golgi reconstructed from serial thick sections; (6) a mouse larynx reconstructed from serial paraffin (histological) LM sections; (7) an intermediate sub-volume tracing used to make the final mitochondrion model shown in number 4; and (8) a low-voltage cryo scanning EM image of a bacterium with islands of a surface protein labeled with immunogold.

National Science Foundation
Rita R. Colwell

Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences
Bennett I. Bertenthal

Division of Science Resources Studies
Jeanne E. Griffith
Ronald S. Fecso
Chief Statistician

Research and Development Statistics Program
John E. Jankowski
Program Director

Division of Science Resources Studies
The Division of Science Resources Studies ( SRS ) fulfills the legislative mandate of the National Science Foundation Act to ...

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Suggested Citation top
National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1998, NSF 99-335, by Steven Payson (Arlington, VA 1999).

March 1999

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Acknowledgments top

This report was written by Steven Payson, Senior Science Resources Analyst, Research and Development Statistics (RDS) Program, Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS), National Science Foundation (NSF).

Many other SRS staff members provided information for inclusion in this report and reviewed the material for accuracy. Substantial guidance and review were provided by John Jankowski, Program Director, RDS, who had originally designed the basic structure of this biennial report. Gratitude is expressed to Andy Black for his work on designing the cover, to the original authors of the cover's picture (Mike Marko and Ardean Leith), and to Academic Press for its permission to use the picture (see page iii). Appreciation is also expressed to the peer-reviewers, Kei Koizumi (of the American Association for the Advancement of Science-all other reviewers mentioned are from NSF), Ronald Meeks, John Tsapogas, and Christina Wise-Mohr; to Ron Fecso, who reviewed the report's statistical aspects and to Jeanne Griffith for her final review for SRS. Particular appreciation also is expressed to Jennifer R. Held for her extensive work in preparing and revising the original tables and figures; to Noelia Sánchez-Walker for her assistance in data manipulation and in figure and table production; and to Sylvie Warren and Rebecca Rak Skinner of WESTAT, Inc. for their final preparation of the tables and figures. The text of the report was edited by Elizabeth Sheley and Nita Congress. Guidance and review in the publication process were provided by Anne M. Houghton, Publications Manager of SRS with assistance from Julia H. Harriston and Tanya R. Gore of the Publications Management Group. Laurie Leonard and Jerrilyn Heller of EDO Technology Services and Analysis provided composition services for this report.

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