Women, Minorities, and Persons with

Disabilities in Science and Engineering

Highlights

Women

Minorities[6] 

Persons With Disabilities



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Footnotes


[1] The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), funded by the National Center for Education Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education, is designed to determine the achievement levels of precollege students in a number of areas, including mathematics and science, and to measure changes in achievement over time. Both mathematics and science assessments are administered periodically to students in the 4th, 8th, and 12th grades. National results are reported by NAEP for each grade level and within various subgroups (e.g., males and females, racial/ethnic groups).

[2] Here, as elsewhere in the report, tests of significance are calculated at the 0.5 level.

[3] The labor force referred to here consists of civilians who are 20 years old or older who are either employed or actively seeking employment.

[4] The science and engineering field in which women earn their degrees influences participation in the science and engineering labor force. A large proportion of women earn degrees in the social sciences, which are defined by NSF as science and engineering, and are then employed in social services occupations, e.g., social worker, clinical psychologist, which are defined by NSF as non–science-and-engineering occupations.

[5] Differences in field, time since degree and number of publications are likely to explain an additional portion of the differences.

[6] In accordance with Office of Management and Budget guidelines, the racial/ethnic groups described in this report will be identified as white, non-Hispanic; black, non-Hispanic; Hispanic; Asian or Pacific Islander; and American Indian or Alaskan native. In text and figure references, these groups will be referred to as white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian. In instances where data collection permits, subgroups of the Hispanic population will be identified by subgroup name. The term "minority" includes all groups other than white; "underrepresented minorities" includes three groups whose representation in science and engineering is less than their representation in the population: blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians.

[7] The National Assessment of Educational Progress measures mathematics achievement on a scale ranging from 0 to 500.

[8] The science and engineering field in which blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians earn their degrees influences their participation in the science and engineering labor force. Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians are disproportionately likely to earn bachelor’s degrees in the social sciences, which are defined by NSF as science degrees, and then employed in social service occupations, e.g., social worker, clinical psychologist, which are defined by NSF as non–science-and-engineering occupations. See appendix A for the definitions of science and engineering occupations.




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