All textual matter

Federal R&D

Funding
by
Budget
Function

Fiscal Years 1993-95

Special Report

Ronald L. Meeks, Principal Author

Division of Science Resources Studies
Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences
National Science Foundation                        NSF 94-319




Suggested Citation

     National Science Foundation, Federal R&D Funding
     by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 1993-95, NSF 94-
     319 (Arlington, VA, 1994).

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Acknowlegments

This report was prepared by Ronald L. Meeks, Survey
Statistician, Science and Engineering Activities (ACT)
Program, Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS),
National Science Foundation.  The statistical tables were
prepared under contract by Kathleen M. Gramp, Senior Program
Associate, Directorate for Science and Policy Programs,
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

General guidance and review were provided by John E.
Jankowski, Jr., Program Director, ACT.   Kenneth M. Brown,
Director, SRS, provided overall guidance.

SRS and AAAS would like to thank the many program and budget
offices at the agencies that provided information for this
report.






Contents

Section                                                Page

Notes to the Reader                                          1

Research and Development in the 1995 Budget:  An overview    7
  Table 1.  Federal R&D budget authority, by budget function 7
  Table 2.  Budget authority for basic research, by budget
function                                                     9
  Table 3.  R&D budget authority as a percentage of each
function's total budget authority                           11
  Table 4.  Distribution of total R&D budget authority, by
function                                                    12
  Table 5.  Federally funded R&D for national defense and
civilian functions:  fiscal years 1955-95                   13

R&D by Specific Budget Function                             15

National Defense                                            15
  Table 6.  R&D budget authority for national defense (050) 16
  Table 7.  Total obligational authority (TOA) for
     Department of Defense (DOD) research, development,
     test, and evaluation (RDT&E) budget                    17

Health                                                      19
  Table 8.  R&D budget authority for health (550)           20
  Table 9.  R&D budget authority for the National Institutes
     of Health                                              21

Space Research and Technology                               22
  Table 10.  R&D budget authority for space research and
technology (252)                                            23

General Science                                             24
  Table 11.  R&D budget authority for general science and
basic research (251)                                        25

Energy                                                      26
  Table 12.  R&D budget authority for energy (270)          27

All Other Functions                                         29
  Table 13.  R&D budget authority for natural resources and
environment (300)                                           31
  Table 14.  R&D budget authority for other natural
resources (306)                                             32
  Table 15.  R&D budget authority for agriculture (352)     33
  Table 16.  R&D budget authority for transportation (400)  34
  Table 17.  R&D budget authority for education, training,
employment, and social services (500)                       35
  Table 18.  R&D budget authority for the Agency for
International Development (151)                             36
  Table 19.  R&D budget authority for commerce and housing
credit (376)                                                37
  Table 20.  R&D budget authority for veterans benefits and
services (700)                                              38
  Table 21.  R&D budget authority for community and regional
development (450)                                           39

  Table 22.  R&D budget authority for general government
  (800)                                                     39
  Table 23.  R&D budget authority for administration of
  justice (750)                                             40
  Table 24.  R&D budget authority for income security (600) 40

  Historical Tables                                         41
  Table 25a.  Federal R&D obligations, by selected budget
  function: fiscal years 1955-60                            43
  Table 25b.  Federal R&D obligations, by selected budget
  function: fiscal years 1961-66                            43
  Table 25c.  Federal R&D obligations, by budget function:
  fiscal years 1967-72                                      44
  Table 25d.  Federal R&D obligations, by budget function:
  fiscal years 1973-77                                      45
  Table 25e.  Federal R&D budget authority, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1978-83                            46
  Table 25f.  Federal R&D budget authority, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1984-89                            47
  Table 25g.  Federal R&D budget authority, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1990-95                            48
  Table 26a.  Budget authority for basic research, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1978-83                            49
  Table 26b.  Budget authority for basic research, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1984-89                            50
  Table 26c.  Budget authority for basic research, by budget
  function: fiscal years 1990-95                            51

  Selected Bibliography                                     53




Notes to the Reader

This annual report contains information on Federal funding
of the research and development (R&D) components of agency
programs, as proposed by the administration for fiscal year
(FY) 1995.  R&D data in this report are classified into the
same Federal budget function categories used in the Budget
of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1995.  Proposed
FY 1995 funding levels are for budget authority (defined
below), which is the basis for initial congressional action.
Detailed data are also included on actual Federal funding of
R&D in FY 1993 and on estimated funding of R&D in FY 1994.1


Report Organization

These notes introduce the basic budget terms and concepts
used in this report.  The rest of the report is divided into
three sections:

Research and Development in the 1995 Budget:  An Overview
provides an overview of Federal Funding of R&D within the
context of requested total Federal budget authority.  This
section consists of five tables.  Tables 1 through 4 provide
an overview of Federal R&D funding within the context of
requested total Federal budget authority.  Table 5 details
Federal R&D funding for national defense and civilian
programs in current and constant 1987 dollars for FYs 1955-
95.

R&D by Specific Budget Function summarizes activities
conducted within each budget function.  Programs within the
five functional categories that account for 90 percent of
the R&D sponsored by the Federal Government are discussed
briefly; data on R&D activities within the remaining
functional categories are presented in tabular form only.
This section consists of 19 tables (tables 6 through 24)
which provide a summary of R&D activities conducted within
each Federal budget function.

Historical Tables presents two historical data series:  (1)
Federal R&D funding by function for fiscal years 1955-95
(tables 25a through 25g) and (2) Federal funding of basic
research for fiscal years 1978-95 (tables 26a through 26c).


Definitions

Research and Development
As used in this report, R&D refers to research--both basic
and applied--and development activities in the sciences and
engineering.

Research is systematic study directed toward fuller
scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject
studied.  Research is classified as either basic or applied
according to the objective of the sponsoring agency.


       In basic research the objective of the sponsoring
     agency is to gain fuller knowledge or understanding of
     the fundamental aspects of phenomena and of observable
     facts without specific applications toward processes or
     products in mind.

       In applied research the objective of the sponsoring
     agency is to gain knowledge or understanding necessary
     for determining means by which a recognized and
     specific need may be met.

Development is the systematic use of the knowledge or
understanding gained from research directed toward the
production of useful materials, devices, systems, or
methods, including design, development, and improvement of
prototypes and new processes.  It excludes quality control,
routine product testing, and production.

Funds for conducting R&D include those for personnel,
program supervision, and administrative support directly
associated with R&D activities.  Expendable or movable
equipment needed to conduct R&D--e.g., microscopes or
spectrometers--is also included.

This report does not include data on R&D plant funds--i.e.,
funds for R&D facilities such as reactors, wind tunnels, or
particle accelerators or for the construction, repair, or
alteration of such facilities.  Also excluded are all non-
R&D activities performed within budget functions that
conduct R&D and all functions in which no R&D is conducted.

Budget Authority, Obligations, and Outlays

The Federal R&D funding data presented here are, with a few
noted exceptions, provided in budget authority.  Budget
authority is used because it is the initial budget parameter
for congressional action on the President's proposed budget.
Budget authority imposes a ceiling on obligations and
outlays; obligations and outlays flow from budget authority.

       Budget authority is the primary source of legal
      authorization to enter into obligations that will
      result in outlays.  Budget authority is most commonly
      granted in the form of appropriations by the
      congressional committees assigned to determine the
      budget for each function.

       Obligations represent the amounts for orders placed,
      contracts awarded, services received, and similar
      transactions during a given period, regardless of
      when the funds were appropriated and when the future
      payment of money is required.

       Outlays represent the amounts for checks issued and
      cash payments made during a given period, regardless
      of when the funds were appropriated or obligated.

Budget Functions

All activities covered by the Federal budget, including R&D,
are classified into 20 broad functional categories. The
Federal budget total comprises funding for these 20
functions.  An agency's activities are not necessarily
included in only one function.  Instead, the programs of one
agency typically are distributed across functions, and each
function often includes programs from multiple agencies.  No
overlap occurs between functions or between the various
agency programs within those functions.  In a few cases
components of a major national effort are funded through
multiple functions, such as the Human Genome mapping effort
(health and energy).

Notably, each specific R&D activity is assigned to only one
function area, consistent with the official codes used in
budget documents, even though the R&D activity may address
several functional concerns.  For example, except for those
of the Army Corps of Engineers, all R&D activities sponsored
by the Department of Defense (DoD) are classified as
defense, even though some activities have secondary
objectives such as space or health.  Moreover, only R&D
funded by the Department of Health and Human Services and
the Department of Labor is classified in the health function
category.  Yet some R&D funding, from at least three
agencies--DoD and the Departments of Energy and Veterans
Affairs--has a major health component.

The functional categories and definitions used in this
report are the same as those used in the Federal budget,
with two exceptions.  First, R&D activities categorized as
general science, space, and technology (function 250) are
reported separately here.  Subfunction 251 contains R&D
activities for general science and basic research, and
subfunction 252 contains R&D activities for space research
and technology.  Not all federally sponsored basic research
is categorized in function 251, however; some basic research
is included in the remaining 19 functional categories.
Second, although two civilian R&D programs at DOE were
funded out of the department's defense appropriations
(affecting 1992 and 1993), this report shows the funding
under the civilian accounts for historical consistency.

Five Federal budget functions--Medicare (function 570),
social security (function 650), net interest (function 900),
allowances (function 920), and undistributed offsetting
receipts (function 950)--have no R&D components.
Consequently, they are not discussed in this report, except
where R&D is described as a proportion of total Federal
budget authority.

The Agency/Function Crosswalk on the following page lists--by
name and function code--the 16 individual R&D functions
funded by agencies.


Data Sources

Within the overall Federal Budget there is no separately
identified R&D budget as such; nor are most appropriations
for R&D so labeled except in the case of certain program
areas, such as in defense, energy, health, and environment.
Consequently, most funds for R&D are not line items in an
agency's budget submission but are included within general
program funding.  To determine funding for Federal R&D, the
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requires agencies
whose annual R&D funding is greater than $10 million to
submit data on their R&D programs as part of their annual
budget submissions.  Specifically, the agencies provide
data--reported, in accordance with OMB Circular A-11, on an
Exhibit 44A, "Research and Development Activities"--on
funding levels for basic research, applied research,
development, R&D facilities, and R&D support to universities
and colleges.

The data in this report represent agencies' best estimates
of actual and proposed Federal funding for R&D collected
during the period February 7 through May 20, 1994.  These
data are based primarily on information provided to OMB by
21 agencies and account for more than 99 percent of all
federally sponsored R&D activities.  Also incorporated in
this report is R&D information that became available from
the individual agencies after the administration's budget
was prepared and reported in the Budget of the United States
Government.  Such information consists of agency budget
justification documents submitted to Congress and
supplemental, program-specific information obtained from
agency budget and program staff through mid-May 1994.
Therefore, budget numbers for individual activities,
programs, or agencies may differ slightly from those
published in the President's budget or agency budget
documents.



Total Research and Development

The administration has proposed total budget authority of
$71.4 billion for research and development (R&D) programs in
its 1995 budget, or 4 percent more than the estimated 1994
R&D total of $68.3 billion.  After adjusting for expected
inflation, R&D budget authority is proposed to increase by 2
percent.

Among individual functions, the largest R&D increase ($1.5
billion) is slated for defense (budget function code 050),
which includes military programs of the Department of
Defense and the atomic energy defense activities of the
Department of Energy (DOE).  The 1995 defense total--$39.5
billion--represents a 4-percent increase over 1994 levels
(table 1).

Total nondefense R&D budget authority is proposed to
increase by $1.6 billion, to $31.9 billion.  This level
would represent  a 5-percent increase from estimated 1994
levels.  Highlights of proposed nondefense R&D funding
follow.

     The administration proposes a 4-percent increase ($0.5
  billion) in health-related R&D (function 550), to $11.4
  billion in 1995.  Most of this proposed growth is for the
  basic and applied biomedical and behavioral research
  programs of the National Institutes of Health (NIH),
  which will account for 95 percent of all Federal health
  R&D.

     R&D budget authority for space research and technology
  activities (subfunction 252) of the National Aeronautics
  and Space Administration (NASA) is proposed to increase
  by 6 percent, or by $0.5 billion in 1995, to $7.7
  billion.  One-third of the total is proposed for
  continuing space science support.   R&D funding for the
  space station is proposed to decline slightly.

     Research funding for general science (subfunction 251)
  is proposed to increase by 6 percent, or by $0.1 billion
  in 1995, to $2.9 billion.  Most of these dollars are
  slated for the National Science Foundation (NSF).
  However, funding for DOE general science programs is
  proposed to decrease.

     A 3-percent increase ($0.1 billion) is proposed for
  energy R&D (function 270), to $2.9 billion in 1995.
  Energy R&D will comprise 4 percent of total Federal R&D
  budget authority.

     Natural resources and the environment R&D funding
  (function 300) is proposed to increase by less than 1
  percent, to $2 billion in 1995.  Within this functional
  category the largest gain is proposed for the
  Environmental Protection Agency's multimedia (i.e.,
  interdisciplinary) research efforts, followed by moderate
  increases planned for the Forest Service's conservation
  and land management programs and for recreational
  resources at the Department of the Interior's National
  Biological Survey.

    Transportation R&D funding (function 400) is proposed to
  increase by 6 percent, to $2 billion.  Most of the
  increase is slated for aviation research by NASA.
  Funding for ground transportation R&D, however, also is
  proposed to increase significantly.

    Funding for agricultural R&D (subfunction 352) is
  proposed to increase in 1995 by less than 1 percent, to
  $1.2 billion.  Agricultural R&D will account for 2
  percent of the total Federal R&D budget authority.

     The remaining eight functions each have less than $0.7
  billion in proposed 1995 R&D budget authority.  Overall,
  R&D for these functions will increase by 19 percent ($0.3
  billion), to $1.8 billion.

  -  R&D for commerce and housing credit (subfunction 376)
  will increase by 85 percent ($319 million), to $694 million.
  This total reflects increased support for the generic applied
  research and technology development programs of the National
  Institute of Standards and Technology. Funding for general
  education programs (subfunctions 501-3) of the
  Department of Education and the Smithsonian Institution
  will increase by 3 percent ($6 million), to $240 million.

  -  R&D increases (13 percent) also are proposed for
  programs in community and regional
  development (function 450).  Major funders to this
  budget function are the Tennessee Valley Authority and
  the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

  -R&D funding will decrease in international affairs
  (function 150), veterans benefits and services
  (function 700), administration of justice (function 750),
  income security (function 600), and general
  government (function 800).


Basic Research

The administration proposes to increase budget authority for
basic research by 4 percent in 1995 to $14.2 billion (table
2).  When adjusted for expected inflation, this would be a 1-
percent increase from the estimated 1994 level.  The basic
research share of total R&D budget authority has steadily
increased from 15 percent in 1986 to the proposed 20 percent
in 1995.

The largest five R&D functions--defense, health, space,
general science, and energy--are also the largest basic
research functions.  They account for 90 percent of the
basic research total (chart 1).  Health ($6.3 billion)
accounts for the largest share (44 percent) of the requested
1995 basic research total, followed by general science ($2.7
billion) and space research and technology ($1.7 billion).
Defense accounts for $1.2 billion--or 9 percent--of the
proposed basic research total, but only 3 percent of the
defense R&D total is basic research.  Of the nondefense R&D
total, 41 percent is basic research.


["Chart 1. Federal R&D Budget authority for basic research,
by budget function: 1995," appears here in printed version.]



Share of Total Budget Authority Devoted to R&D

For functions that include R&D activities, the proportion of
total budget authority requested for R&D varies
considerably, from a high of 67 percent for general science
to less than 0.1 percent for income security and general
government (table 3).

Besides general science, only energy (62 percent) and space
research and technology (59 percent) have one-half or more
of their total funds proposed for 1995 directed toward R&D.
Fifteen percent of defense-related funding, 12 percent of
commerce and housing credit, and 10 percent of total health
funding are proposed for R&D.  Each of the remaining 10
functions has less than 10 percent of its total budget
allocated for R&D.  In five of these functions, R&D accounts
for less than 1 percent of  total funds.


Distribution of Total R&D Budget Authority Among Functions

The five largest R&D functions in 1995--defense, health,
space, general science, and  energy--account for 90 percent
of all proposed Federal R&D budget authority.
Transportation, natural resources and the environment,
agriculture, and commerce and housing credit each account
for between 1 and 3 percent of Federal funding of R&D.  The
remaining seven functions each account for less than 1
percent of the total 1995 proposed R&D budget authority
(table 4).

During the early and mid-1980s, practically all growth in
Federal R&D support was defense related (chart 2).  Since
1986, however, defense R&D has dropped significantly from
its peak 69-percent share of the Federal total to the
proposed 55-percent share for 1995 (table 5).  Despite this
decline, defense is proposed to receive three times the
budget authority for R&D than the next largest function,
health.

[Chart 2, "Federal budget authority for defense and
nondefense R&D: FYs 1975-95," appears here in printed version]


R&D by Specific Budget Function

National Defense

Total R&D budget authority request for national defense
(function 050) in 1995 is $39.5 billion, which would reflect
an increase of $1.5 billion--or 4 percent--from estimated 1994
levels.  This function consists of the Department of
Defense's research, development, test, and evaluation
(RDT&E) programs and the atomic energy defense activities of
the Department of Energy.  The defense function accounts for
55 percent of the total Federal proposed R&D funding in
1995--14 percentage points less than in 1986 (chart 3).

    R&D funds for all DoD mission areas are proposed to
  increase by 4 percent, to $37 billion, and account for 94
  percent of 1995 defense R&D budget authority.  DOE
  defense R&D programs are proposed to fall by almost 3
  percent, to $2.5 billion.


[chart 3, "Federally funded R&D for national defense and
civilian functions: fiscal years 1985-95," appears here in
printed version]



     Proposed budget authority for defense basic research is
  $1.2 billion, 2 percent above the 1994 level.  DoD
  accounts for 94 percent of the defense basic research
  total.

    Within DoD, the largest gains are proposed for the Air
  Force (up 2 percent, to $12.3 billion in 1995) and Navy
  (up 8 percent, to $8.9 billion).  Army RDT&E is proposed
  to decline--primarily for tactical programs--by 3 percent,
  to $5.3 billion.  R&D programs within DoD's 13 Defense
  Agencies are proposed to increase by 9 percent, to $9.4
  billion.

     The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and
  the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) will account
  for 60 percent of the R&D programs within the Defense
  Agencies.  The budget request for the R&D portion of BMDO
  will increase by 14 percent, to $3.0 billion.  The BMDO
  request reflects a change of focus toward Theater Missile
  Defenses and away from Ballistic Missile Defense.  ARPA
  will show a modest 2-percent rise in funds, to $2.7
  billion.  However, ARPA has taken on the explicit mission
  of developing technologies with both commercial and
  military applications.  ARPA's Technology Reinvestment
  Project (TRP), which promotes dual-use technologies
  through competitively selected projects supported jointly
  by ARPA and the private sector, is one of the key DoD
  conversion programs.

     Among DOE atomic energy defense activities, the largest
  reduction is proposed for weapons research, development,
  and testing (down $110 million, to $1.4 billion), much of
  which is performed by the three DOE National
  Laboratories:  Los Alamos, Sandia, and Lawrence
  Livermore.  Increases are proposed for R&D related to
  naval reactors development, environmental restoration and
  waste management, intelligence, and national security.


Health

The administration proposes a 4-percent increase for R&D
health programs (function 550).  The proposed $11.4 billion
1995 health total accounts for 16 percent of all Federal
R&D.  The health share has grown fairly steadily since 1986,
when it was 10 percent of total.  The Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS) funds all R&D classified for health
care services and health research and training (subfunctions
551 and 552).  R&D funding for consumer and occupational
health and safety (subfunction 554) is provided by HHS and
the Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.

    The health function accounts for 44 percent of all
  Federal basic research support.  The $6.3 billion
  proposed for health-related basic research is 5 percent
  more than the 1994 level.

     A 5-percent increase, to $529 million, is proposed for
  R&D support to be provided by the National Institutes of
  Health.  Totaling $10.9 billion, these programs would
  account for 95 percent of all health R&D funding.  The
  primary mission of NIH is to advance national
  capabilities for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
  disease through biomedical and behavioral research.

    Within NIH the largest share of R&D funding is proposed
  for the National Cancer Institute ($2.1 billion),
  followed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
  ($1.3 billion).  HIV/AIDS-related research, conducted by
  nearly all the institutes and centers, is expected to
  receive an increase of $78 million (6 percent), to a
  total $1.4 billion.  With few exceptions, 4- to 6-percent
  increases are proposed for each of the 18 Institutes and
  Centers comprising NIH. R&D for the NIH Director's Office
  is proposed to increase by 11 percent, to $244 million,
  primarily to continue funding the Women's Health Study
  and the Minority Health Study.  In addition, HHS R&D
  support for the Human Genome mapping effort is proposed
  to increase 20 percent, to $149 million in 1995.

    A 1-percent increase, to $174 million, is proposed for
  consumer and occupational health and safety in 1995.  The
  Food and Drug Administration accounts for 97 percent of
  these funds.


Space Research and Technology

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
funds all R&D that is specifically budgeted in space flight,
research, and supporting activities (subfunction 252).  R&D
budget authority is proposed to increase 6 percent in 1995,
to $7.7 billion, and to account for 11 percent of total
Federal R&D funds.  As recently as 1986 space accounted for
a 5-percent share of the R&D total.  NASA R&D programs
reflect priorities set by the National Space Policy, under
which NASA is charged with conducting a balanced program of
manned and unmanned exploration, accelerating the pace of
scientific investigations in space, and developing space
technologies to meet the long-range goal of expanding human
presence in the solar system.  NASA budget categories have
been greatly changed in fiscal year 1995, partly to reflect
the administration's strategy of spending less on human
space flight and more on science, aeronautics, and
technology development.

     The budget proposes a 6-percent decrease in R&D, to
  $1.9 billion.  The Space Station program underwent a
  redesign exercise last year and has been dramatically
  refocused into a major international project with Russia
  invited as a new partner.  At a proposed 1995 funding
  level of $1.9 billion, the Space Station accounts for 24
  percent of total space R&D budget authority.

     NASA's science programs are comprised of three budget
  categories:  Space Science, Life and Microgravity
  Sciences and Applications, and Mission to Planet Earth
  (MTPE).  These categories will comprise 59 percent of
  total space R&D budget authority.  Space Science, having
  the largest budget ($2.5 billion) of the three
  categories, is composed of physics and astronomy
  programs, as well as planetary exploration projects.
  Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications will be
  budgeted for $608 million and is responsible for
  conducting space research in the areas of biology,
  biomedicine, biotechnology, combustion, fluid dynamics,
  and materials sciences.  MTPE is NASA's contribution to
  the U.S. Global Change Research Program and will get $1.4
  billion in 1995.  The project is designed to study
  changes in the Earth's global environment.


General Science

Research activities in general science (subfunction 251), of
which 94 percent are basic research, are funded by the
National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy.
These activities are seen as contributing more broadly to
the Nation's scientific and engineering base than are basic
research programs that support agency missions.  Total
research support in general science is proposed to increase
by 6 percent in 1995, to $2.9 billion.  Of this research
total 77 percent is slated for NSF and 23 percent, for DOE.

     NSF is to receive $2.2 billion in research budget
  authority, representing an increase of $188 million, or 9
  percent, over 1994 funding levels.  Funding increases are
  proposed for six of NSF's seven research directorates and
  for the U.S. Polar Research Programs, for which NSF has
  primary responsibility.  The Education and Human
  Resources Directorate will show a slight drop (0.4
  percent) in R&D funding.

     Funds for mathematics and physical sciences will
  increase by 8 percent and account for 30 percent--$656
  million--of the proposed NSF research budget authority.

     A 10-percent increase is proposed for NSF's Engineering
  Directorate, bringing its funding to $320 million in
  1995.  Of this total, $63 million is proposed for the 22
  Engineering Research Centers and 55 State-Industry-
  University Cooperative Research Centers for which NSF
  provides funding.

     NSF's Computer and Information Science and Engineering
  Directorate is to receive $29 million more for research
  in 1995, or a 14-percent increase.  This directorate
  provides funds for efforts in five strategic initiatives:
  (1) High Performance Computing and Communications, (2)
  Advanced Manufacturing Technology, (3) Advanced Materials
  Processing, (4) Biotechnology, and (5) Science
  Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education.

    General science programs at DOE are to decrease by 6
  percent, to $647 million.  Research funding for the
  Superconducting Super Collider has been canceled by
  congressional action.  Research in other high energy
  physics programs is to decrease by 4 percent, or $18
  million.  Nuclear physics research is to fall by 9
  percent, or $20 million.


Energy

Three agencies provide support for R&D activities in energy
(function 270):  the Department of Energy, which provides 94
percent of the funding in this area; the Tennessee Valley
Authority (TVA); and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC).   Total energy R&D budget authority is proposed to be
$2.9 billion in 1995, reflecting a 3-percent increase.

  The DOE energy budget is proposed to increase 3 percent,
to $2.8 billion, in 1995.  Energy budgets for TVA and NRC
will increase 2 percent and 3 percent, respectively.
Overall funding for energy-related basic research is
proposed to reach $990 million, representing a 4-percent
gain.

     Proposed 1995 R&D budget authority for DOE fossil fuel
programs--including the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration
Program--is expected to decrease 25 percent in 1995.

     R&D on energy conservation is proposed to increase 39
percent, or $130 million, to $465 million.

     A 27-percent increase is proposed for solar and
renewable energy (includes solar energy, hydrogen research,
geothermal energy, and hydropower) research--to $285 million
in 1995.  The proposed growth in this area is a strong
indicator  of the administration's commitment to develop
environmentally friendly sources of energy consistent with
the White House Global Climate Change Action Plan.

     Magnetic fusion R&D is to decrease slightly, from $307
million to $306 million.  However, enthusiasm for this area
appears to be high following the recent success of the
Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics
Laboratory, where a world record 6 million watts of fusion
power was produced.  Nuclear fission energy R&D is slated to
fall to $134 million in 1995.

     Basic energy sciences, which support both research and
scientific facilities, are to receive a $21 million, or 4-
percent, increase, to $619 million.

    DOE biological and environmental research programs
promote the development and application of  biotechnology
for purposes of health and environment.  Proposed R&D in
this area is to increase 2 percent, to $331 million.
Research on the Human Genome is to account for 21 percent of
this total.


                    Selected Bibliography

American Association for the Advancement of Science.  AAAS
Report XIX, Research and Development FY 1995.  Washington,
DC:  1994.

Congressional Research Service/Library of Congress.  CRS
Issue Brief, Research and Development Funding:  Fiscal Year
1995.  Washington, DC:  March 1994.

National Science Board.  Science & Engineering Indicators,
1993.  Washington, DC:  1993.

Office of Management and Budget.  Budget of the United
States Government, Appendix, Fiscal Year 1995, Washington,
DC:  1994.


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