R&D by Specific Budget Function

up arrow NATIONAL DEFENSE

The total R&D budget authority request for national defense (function 050) in 1996 is $37.6 billion, which would be a decrease of $0.9 billion-or 2.5 percent-from estimated 1995 levels. This function consists of the DOD research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) programs and the atomic energy defense activities of DOE (table 6). The defense function accounts for 53 percent of the total Federal proposed R&D funding in 1996-16 percentage points less than in 1986 (chart 4). As of this writing,congressional action on DOD appears to support an increase in R&D funding. Selected defense changes proposed for R&D funding in FY 1996 are highlighted below.

Chart 4

up arrow HEALTH

The administration proposes a 4-percent increase for R&D health programs (function 550). The proposed $11.8 billion 1996 health total accounts for 36 percent of all Federal nondefense R&D. The health share has been fairly stable over the last 10 years, staying above one-third of the total nondefense R&D (chart 5). The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) funds all R&D classified for health care services and health research (subfunctions 551 and 552); R&D funding for consumer and occupational health and safety (subfunction 554) is provided by HHS and the Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration. R&D funding proposed in the 1996 budget for health provides growth for almost all agencies performing R&D health programs (table 8). Funding decreases are slated for the Health Care Financing Administration (7 percent drop) and Health Resources and Services Administration (0.2 percent). Selected health R&D funding changes are highlighted below.

Chart 5

up arrow SPACE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funds all R&D that is specifically budgeted in space flight, research, and supporting activities (subfunction 252). R&D budget authority is proposed to decrease slightly, by 0.1 percent, in 1996, to $7.9 billion, and account for 11 percent of total Federal R&D funds. As recently as 1986, space accounted for a 5-percent share of the R&D total. NASA R&D programs reflect priorities set by the National Space Policy, under which NASA is charged with conducting a balanced program of manned and unmanned exploration, accelerating the pace of scientific investigations in space, and developing space technologies to meet the long-range goal of expanding human presence in the solar system. Selected space research and technology R&D funding changes are highlighted below.

up arrow GENERAL SCIENCE

Research activities in general science (subfunction251), of which 94 percent are basic research, are funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. These activities are seen as contributing more broadly to the Nation's scientific and engineering base than are basic research programs that support agency missions. Total research support in general science is proposed to increase by 6 percent in 1996, to $3 billion. Of this research total, 76 percentis slated for NSF and 24 percent is for DOE. Congressional action as of this writing proposes to cut NSF's research account below the administration's request: the House, by $200 million and the Senate, by $160 million. Selected general science changes proposed for R&D funding in FY 1996 are highlighted below.

up arrow ENERGY

Three agencies provide support for R&D activities in energy (function 270): the Department of Energy (DOE), which provides 95 percent of the funding inthis area; the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Total energy R&D budget authority is proposed to be $3.1 billion in 1996, a 7-percent increase. However, congressional House action proposes funding energy at 27 percent below the administration's request. Selected energy R&D funding changes are highlighted below.

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