Measures and Comparisons of National Resources for R&D
NSF 95-304

Measures and Comparison of National Resources for R&D

U.S. R&D/GDP Ratio
U.S. Federal R&D Funds/Total Budget Ratio
International Comparisons
R&D/GDP Ratios
R&D Scientists and Engineers/Labor Force Ratios

This section examines two indicators of R&D spending: (1) the ratio of total R&D expenditures to GDP and (2) the ratio of Federal funds expended for R&D to total Federal funds. Also presented is a comparison of U.S. R&D resources with those of other countries. These measures and comparisons show that, as a result of the overall recent leveling trend from strong growth in the early eighties, the U.S. commitment to R&D seems to have plateaued during the past decade. Relative to the increases of its major international competitors, the U.S. R&D effort has eroded slightly, although many of these countries are also now experiencing a slowing in their R&D effort.

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