Federal Government
NSF 95-304

Federal Government

The Federal Government performed an estimated $17 billion of the 1994 U.S. R&D total. This figure is a 4 percent increase from estimated 1993 levels, or about 2 percent higher after adjusting for inflation. Federal agencies accounted for 10 percent of the estimated national R&D performance effort, continuing the very gradual decline that began in the mid 1970s.

Until 1980 the Federal Government had been the second largest R&D performer in the Nation. Its share of the national R&D performance total, however, fell from 16 percent in 1970 to 12 percent in 1980. This reduction was due primarily to cutbacks in space R&D programs: NASA funds for intramural R&D performance decreased by more than one half in real terms during this period. As a result, in 1980 the academic sector-including associated FFRDCs surpassed the Federal Government in share of national R&D performance.

Only three agencies had estimated intramural R&D expenditures that in 1994 exceeded $1.0 billion, including costs associated with planning and administering extramural R&D programs.[12] These three agencies account for 80 percent of intramural R&D performed by all Federal agencies. Intramural R&D performance by DOD is estimated to have decreased by an inflation adjusted 1 percentage point to $8.8 billion. NASA's intramural real R&D is estimated to have increased 11 percent, to $2.6 billion, and that by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) mostly by the National Institutes of Health rose by about 6 percent, to $2.2 billion. All other Federal agencies spent an estimated $3.6 billion on intramural R&D 40 percent of which came from the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior.

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12. Estimates are for FY 1994 Federal intramural obligations as reflected in the administration's 1994 budget proposal (see appendix A) and cover costs associated with planning and administering intramural and extramural R&D programs by Federal personnel as well as actual intramural R&D performance. See NSF, Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1992, 1993, and 1994, vol. 42, Detailed Statistical Tables, NSF 94- 328 (Arlington, VA, 1994).

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