Chapter 6:

Academic Research and Development: Financial and Personnel Resources, Support for Graduate Education, and Outputs

Selected Bibliography

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Bentley, J.T., and J. Berger. 1998a. "The Effects of Graduate Support Mechanisms: A Literature Review." Draft report to the Division of Science Resources Studies, National Science Foundation.

---. 1998b. "The Effects of Graduate Support Mechanisms on Time-to-Degree and Early Career Plans." Draft report to the Division of Science Resources Studies, National Science Foundation.

Brainard, J., and C. Cordes. 1999. "Pork-Barrel Spending on Academe Reaches a Record $797-Million." The Chronicle of Higher Education July 23: A44.

Bush, V. 1945. Science-the Endless Frontier: A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Reprinted 1990. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 1994. A Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Princeton, New Jersey: Carnegie.

Clinton, W.J., and A. Gore, Jr. 1994. Science in the National Interest. Washington, DC: Office of Science and Technology Policy.

Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP). 1995. Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Daedalus. 1997. "The American Academic Profession. " 126, No. 4 (fall).

"EPSCoR Interagency Coordinating Committee: FY 1999." Unpublished report.

European Commission. 1997. Second European Report on S&T Indicators. Brussels.

Ganz-Brown, C. 1999. "Patent Policies to Fine Tune Commercialization of Government-Sponsored University Research." Science and Public Policy 26, No. 6 (December)

Henderson, R., A. Jaffe, and M. Trajtenberg. 1998. "Universities as a Source of Commercial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965--88." Review of Economics & Statistics: 119--27.

Huttner, S. 1999. "Knowledge and the Biotech Economy: A Case of Mistaken Identity." Paper presented at the High-Level CERI/OECD/NSF Forum on Measuring Knowledge in Learning Economies and Societies, Arlington, VA. May

Jankowski, J. 1999. Memorandum on Federal Facilities and Administration Reimbursement Analysis. Science Resources Studies Division, National Science Foundation. Arlington, VA. February 4.

Mansfield, E. 1991. "Academic Research and Industrial Innovation." Research Policy 20, No. 1 (February): 1--12.

Mazzoleni, R. and R. Nelson. 1998. "The Benefits and Costs of Strong Patent Protection: A Contribution to the Current Debate." Research Policy 27: 113--124.

Mowery, D., R. Nelson, B. Sampart, and A. Ziedonis. In press. "The Growth of Patenting and Licensing by U.S. Universities: An Assessment of the Effects of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980." Research Policy.

Narin, F., K. Hamilton, and D. Olivastro. 1997. "The Increasing Linkage Between U.S. Technology and Public Science." Research Policy 26, No. 3 (December): 317--30.

National Academy of Sciences, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. 1989. Science and Technology in the Academic Enterprise: Status, Trends, and Issues. Washington, DC.

---. 1994. Stresses on Research and Education at Colleges and Universities. Washington, DC.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). 1994. Faculty and Instructional Staff: Who Are They and What Do They Do? NCES 94-346. Washington, DC.

National Research Council (NRC). 1991. Ending Mandatory Retirement for Tenured Faculty. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

---. 1994. Validation Study of the Survey of Earned Doctorates. Washington, DC.

National Science Board (NSB). 1996. Report From the Task Force on Graduate and Postdoctoral Education. NSB/GE-96-2. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

National Science Board (NSB). 1998. Industry Trends in Research Support and Links to Public Research. NSB 98-99. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

National Science Foundation (NSF), Science Resources Studies Division. 1964. Scientific and Technical Manpower Resources. NSF 64-28. Washington, DC.

---. 1993. Human Resources for Science and Technology: The Asian Region. NSF 93-303. Washington, DC.

---. 1995a. Asia's New High-Tech Competitors. NSF 95-39. Arlington, VA.

---. 1995b. Guide to NSF Science/Engineering Resources Data. NSF 95-318. Arlington, VA.

---. 1995c. NSF Survey Instruments Used in Collecting Science and Engineering Resources Data. NSF 95-317. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996a. "Graduate Education and Postdoctoral Training in the Mathematical and Physical Sciences." Workshop report sponsored by the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. June 5--6, 1995. NSF 96-21. Arlington, VA.

---. 1996b. Human Resources for Science and Technology: The European Region. NSF 96-316. Arlington, VA.

---. 1998a. Are Forms of Financial Support and Employment Choices of Recent Science and Engineering Ph.D.s Related? NSF 98-320. Arlington, VA.

---. 1998b. What is the Debt Burden of New Science and Engineering Ph.D.s? NSF 98-318. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999a. Academic Research and Development Expenditures: Fiscal Year 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 99-336. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999b. Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables. Arlington, VA. In press.

---. 1999c. Does the Educational Debt Burden of Science and Engineering Doctorates Differ by Race/Ethnicity and Sex? NSF 99-341. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999d. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fiscal Years 1997, 1998, and 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables. 47. NSF 99-333. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999e. Federal Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions: Fiscal Year 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 99-331. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999f. Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall 1998. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 99-325. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999g. How Has the Field Mix of Academic R&D Changed? NSF 99-309. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999h. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1998. NSF 99-335. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999i. Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 1997. Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 99-323. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999j. SESTAT: A Tool for Studying Scientists and Engineers in the United States. NSF 99-337. Arlington, VA.

---. 1999k. Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 1998. NSF 99-338. Arlington, VA.

---. 2000a. Modes of Financial Support in the Graduate Education of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients. Arlington, VA. In press.

---. 2000b. Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges: 1998. Arlington, VA. In press.

National Science and Technology Council. 1999. Presidential Directive for the Review of the Federal Government-University Partnership. Washington, DC.

Noll, R., ed. 1998. Challenges to Research Universities. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). 1992. Renewing the Promise: Research-Intensive Universities and the Nation. Washington, DC.

Organization of American States. 1997. "Science & Technology Indicators." Iberoamerican/Interamerican. Washington, DC.

Raghuram, N., and Y. Madhavi. 1996. "India's Declining Ranking." Nature 383 (October 17): 572.

Steelman, J. R. 1947. Science and Public Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Reprinted 1980. New York: Arno Press.

U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 1986. Report of the White House Science Council: Panel on the Health of the U.S. Colleges and Universities. Washington, DC.

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 1999. Technology Assessment and Forecast Report, U.S. Universities and Colleges, 1969--98. Washington, DC.

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