List of Figures


Chapter 1
Science and Technology in Times of Transition: the 1940s and 1990s top

1-1 National R&D funding, by source: 1953-98
1-2 National R&D performance, but type of performer: 1953-1998

Chapter 2
U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances top

2-1
National R&D funding, by source: 1953-1998
2-2
National R&D expenditures: 1997
2-3
National R&D expenditures, by source of funds
2-4
Federal R&D funding, by budget function
2-5
Trends in Federal and non-Federal R&D expenditures as a percentage of total R&D: 1953-98
2-6
National R&D obligations, by selected agency
2-7
Federal R&D support, by performing sector
2-8
Federal support for R&D in selected industries as a percentage of all Federal support to industrial R&D
2-9
Small business innovation research awards, by technology area: 1983-97
2-10
Budgetary impact of Federal research and experimentation tax credit: FYs 1988-99
2-11
Historical pattern of R&D as a percentage of GDP: 1953-98
2-12
National R&D performance, by type of performer: 1953-1998
2-13
Industrial R&D performance, by manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries
2-14
Industrial R&D performance in the top 10 states in industrial R&D in 1997: R&D in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
2-15
National R&D funding, by character of work
2-16
National R&D expenditures, by source of funds, performing sector, and character of work: 1998
2-17
Federal share of total U.S. funding of basic research, applied research, and development
2-18
Projected Federal obligations, by agency and character of work: 1999
2-19
R&D share of the Federal budget
2-20
Federal obligations for research by field: basic research, applied research, and total research
2-21
R&D associated primarily with chemistry (nonmedical) and chemical engineering
2-22
R&D associated primarily with the life sciences
2-23
R&D associated primarily with mathematics, computer science, and communication and electrical equipment (excluding DOD-supported development of military equipment)
2-24
Federal technology transfer indicators
2-25
Growth in R&D consortia registered under the National Cooperative Research and Production Act
2-26
Advanced Technology Program funding
2-27
U.S. and other G-7 countries' R&D expenditures
2-28
Rates of change in total inflation-adjusted R&D spending
2-29
Japanese and German R&D expenditures and annual changes in R&D estimates
2-30
R&D as a percentage of GDP, G-8 countries
2-31
R&D expenditures, by country, performer, and source: 1996-98
2-32
Proportion of industrial R&D expenditures financed from foreign sources
2-33
Distribution of R&D by character of work, in selected G-8 countries
2-34
Government R&D support, by country and socioeconomic objective: 1997-98
2-35
Difference in U.S. performer-reported versus agency-reported Federal R&D
2-36
New international strategic technology alliances, by technology
2-37
Globalization of U.S. industrial R&D
2-38
Industrial R&D of U.S. and foreign affiliates, by world region: 1996
2-39
Ratio of U.S. overseas R&D to company-financed domestic R&D
2-40
U.S. R&D performed abroad
2-41
U.S. industrial R&D financed by majority-owned foreign firms
2-42
U.S. industrial R&D financed by majority-owned foreign firms

Chapter 3
Science and Engineering Workforce top

3-1
Percentage of S&E degree holders in jobs closely related to their degrees
3-2
S&E bachelor's degree holders in jobs closely related to their degrees
3-3
S&E degree holders working through a temporary help or employment agency: 1997
3-4
Unemployment rates of scientists and engineers by broad occupation and highest degree: 1997
3-5
Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers by broad occupation and highest degree: 1997
3-6
Distribution of S&E R&D workers by degree level
3-7
Distribution of S&E R&D workers by field of highest degree
3-8
Percentage of S&E Ph.D. holders engaged in R&D as a major work activity
3-9
Proportion of women in S&E workforce by broad occupation: 1997
3-10
Median annual salaries of employed scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and sex: 1997
3-11
Median annual salaries of scientists and engineers, by broad occupation and race/ethnicity: 1997
3-12
Age distribution of labor force with S&E high degrees
3-13
1997 age distribution of S&E Ph.D. recipients in the labor force: tenured and tenure-track faculty at four-year institutions
3-14
Older S&E degree holders working full-time
3-15
Place of birth for foreign-born S&E degree holders: 1997
3-16
Immigration and Naturalization Service counts of permanent visas with S&E occupations
3-17
S&E labor force engaged in R&D per 10,000 labor force
3-18
U.S. scientists and engineers engaged in R&D as a percentage of the G-7 total

Chapter 4
U.S. and International Research and Development Funds and Alliances top

4-1
Number of institutions of higher education, by type: 1953-94
4-2
U.S. higher education in 1996: students, institutions, and degrees at all levels
4-3
Enrollment in U.S. higher education, by institution type: 1967-96
4-4
Bachelor's degrees awarded in S&E, by institution type: 1996
4-5
Master's degrees awarded in S&E, by institution type: 1996
4-6
Trends in U.S. college-age cohort and bachelor's degrees in selected NS&E fields: 1975-2010
4-7
Enrollment in college as S&E majors, by race/ethnicity and sex
4-8
Freshmen reporting need for remedial work in science or math, by intended major: 1997
4-9
Engineering enrollment, by level: 1979-98
4-10
Course offerings in remedial mathematics, by type of institution: 1995
4-11
Bachelor's degrees earned in selected S&E fields: 1966-96
4-12
First university degrees in S&E in selected countries, by region: 1997 or most recent year
4-13
Bachelor's degrees in S&E fields earned within selected Asian countries: 1975-96
4-14
Doctoral degrees in S&E fields earned within selected Asian countries: 1975-97
4-15
Ratio of NS&E degrees to the 24-year-old population, by country
4-16
Master's degrees awarded in S&E, by broad field: 1966-96
4-17
Doctoral S&E degrees earned in U.S. universities, by field: 1950-97
4-18
Doctoral S&E degrees by region and field: 1997
4-19
Doctoral S&E degrees in selected industrialized countries: 1975-97
4-20
Doctoral S&E degrees in selected Asian countries: 1975-97
4-21
Doctoral S&E degrees earned by Asian students within Asian and U.S. universities: 1975-97
4-22
Doctoral S&E degrees earned by Chinese students within Chinese and U.S. universities: 1987-97
4-23
Doctoral NS&E degrees earned within U.S. and Asian universities: 1975-97
4-24
Japanese students entering graduate school directly after completing bachelor of science degrees
4-25
Representation of women and minorities in undergraduate engineering enrollment
4-26
Completion and attrition rates five years after beginning an S&E major, by race/ethnicity and sex
4-27
S&E degrees earned by underrepresented minority students, by level and field: 1996/97
4-28
Bachelor's degrees in S&E fields earned by selected groups
4-29
Ratio of NS&E degrees to the college-age population, by country and sex
4-30
Master's degrees in S&E fields earned by selected groups
4-31
Proportion of doctoral degrees earned by women in U.S. universities, by field
4-32
Doctoral degrees in S&E fields earned by selected groups
4-33
U.S. doctoral S&E degrees earned by U.S. and foreign citizens: 1986-97
4-34
S&E degrees earned by foreign students, by level and field
4-35
Foreign S&E doctoral recipients (from North America, Europe, and Asia) with plans to stay in the United States: 1985-97
4-36
Foreign-born S&E faculty in U.S. higher education, by field: 1997

Chapter 5
Academic Research and Development:
Financial and Personnel Resources, Integration With Graduate Education, and Outputs up

5-1
Total enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools: 1950-2005
5-2
Percentage of 15 to 24-year-olds (grades 10-12) who dropped out of school, by family income and race/ethnicity: 1976-97
5-3
Charter schools by year
5-4
Trends in the percentage of students at or above benchmark levels of NAEP science performance, by age: 1977-96
5-5
Trends in the percentage of students at or above benchmark levels of NAEP mathematics performance, by age: 1978-96
5-6
Trends in the percentage of students at or above benchmark levels of NAEP science performance, by age and race/ethnicity: 1977-96
5-7
Trends in the percentage of students at or above benchmark levels of NAEP mathematics performance, by age and race/ethnicity: 1978-96
5-8
Average scale score on grade 4 TIMSS science and mathematics assessments relative to U.S. averages, by country: 1994-95
5-9
Average scale score on TIMSS science and mathematics assessments for students in grade 8, by country: 1994-95
5-10
Mean scale score on TIMSS general knowledge assessments in mathematics and science for students in their final year of secondary school: 1994-95
5-11
Average scale score on TIMSS physics and advanced mathematics assessment for students in their final year of secondary school: 1994-95
5-12
Percentage of high school graduates taking science courses, by gender: 1982-94
5-13
Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in selected mathematics courses, by gender: 1982-94
5-14
Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in selected science courses, by race/ethnicity: 1982-94
5-15
Percentage of high school graduates earning credits in mathematics courses, by race/ethnicity: 1982-94
5-16
Selected characteristics of grade 8 mathematics and science instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States: 1994-95
5-17
Selected characteristics of grade 4, 8, and 12 mathematics and science instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States: 1994-95
5-18
Percentage of public schools and percentage of instructional rooms having access to the Internet, by school characteristics: 1994, 1997, and 1998
5-19
Percentage of secondary school (grades 7-12) teachers in each field without a major or a minor in that field

Chapter 6
Academic Research and Development: Financial and Personnel Resources, Support for Graduate Education and Outputs top

6-1
Academic R&D, research, and basic research as a proportion of U.S. totals: 1953-98
6-2
Academic R&D expenditures by character of work and national R&D expenditures by performer and character of work: 1998
6-3
Sources of academic R&D funding: 1953-98
6-4
Share of academic R&D of top R&D universities and colleges: 1985-97
6-5
Academic R&D expenditures, by field: 1973-97
6-6
Changes in the share of academic R&D in selected S&E fields: 1973-97
6-7
Distribution of Federal agency academic research obligations, by field: FY 1997
6-8
Major agency field shares of Federal academic research obligations: FY 1997
6-9
Number of academic institutions receiving Federal R&D support by selected Carnegie classification: 1971-97
6-10
Planned new construction between 1986 and 1997 as a percentage of 1998 research space, by S&E field
6-11
Current fund expenditures for research equipment at academic institutions, by field: 1981-97
6-12
Academic doctoral scientists and engineers by type of position: 1973-97
6-13
Recent S&E Ph.D.s hired by research universities and other academic institutions, by type of institution and appointment: 1973-97
6-14
Index of growth in full-time doctoral science and engineering faculty, by rank and sex: 1973-97
6-15
Index of growth in full-time doctoral science and engineering faculty, by rank and race/ethnicity: 1973-97
6-16
Age distribution of full-time doctoral science and engineering faculty: 1973-97
6-17
Age distribution of full-time doctoral science and engineering faculty in research universities and other institutions: 1973, 1985, and 1997
6-18
Percentage of academically employed recent S&E Ph.D.s with full-time faculty status, by major field group: 1973-97
6-19
Total employed academic doctoral scientists and engineers and those with research responsibility: 1973-97
6-20
Distribution of primary work activity of recent S&E Ph.D.s in full-time academic faculty positions: 1973-97
6-21
Primary support mechanisms for full-time S&E graduate students: 1980-97
6-22
Primary support of full-time S&E graduate students, by mechanism and source for private and public universities: 1997
6-23
Percentage of full-time S&E graduate students with the Federal Government as primary source of support, by primary mechanism of support: 1980-97
6-24
Primary forms of support for 1997 U.S. citizen S&E Ph.D. recipients, by race/ethnicity
6-25
Percentage of full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as primary mechanism of support, by field: 1980-97
6-26
Indicator of relative importance of research assistantships as primary mechanism of support for full-time S&E graduate students and S&E Ph.D. recipients, by field: 1997
6-27
Percentage of full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as primary support mechanism whose primary source of support is the Federal Government, by field: 1980-97
6-28
Field distribution of full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as primary support mechanism, by federal agency of primary support: 1997
6-29
Federal agency distribution of full-time S&E graduate students with a research assistantship as primary support mechanism, by field: 1997
6-30
Distribution of U.S. scientific and technical articles, by sector: 1995-97
6-31
Distribution of U.S. scientific and technical articles, by field: 1995-97
6-32
Distribution of the world's scientific and technical articles, by field: 1995-97
6-33
Distribution of the world's scientific and technical articles in major journals, by region/country: 1995-97
6-34
Relationship of volume of scientific and technical articles to gross domestic product for selected countries: 1997
6-35
Distribution of selected countries' scientific and technical articles, by aggregated fields: 1995-97
6-36
Relationship of volume of U.S.-coauthored multinational articles to U.S. S&E Ph.D.s received by natives of foreign authors' countries
6-37
Percentage of internationally coauthored articles involving one or more U.S. authors for selected countries: 1986-88 and 1995-97
6-38
Number of countries which shared at least one percent of their internationally coauthored articles with nation indicated: 1995-97
6-39
Citations in selected countries' scientific and technical literature to U.S., own, and major regions' articles: 1997
6-40
Citations to U.S. research in other nations' scientific and technical articles, relative to U.S. world article shares, by field
6-41
Number of citations on U.S. patents to scientific and technical articles: 1987-98
6-42
Number of universities and colleges granted patents: 1982-98
6-43
Number of academic patents granted: 1982-98
6-44
Percentage of total academic patents in three largest academic utility classes: 1969-98, selected years

Chapter 7
Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace top

7-1
International economic comparisons
7-2
Average annual rates of growth in three U.S. economic sectors: 1980-97
7-3
Global activity in five knowledge-based service industries in 1997
7-4
High-technology industries' share of total manufacturing output
7-5
Country share of global high-technology output
7-6
U.S. global output share, by high-technology industry
7-7
Global output share, by selected country and high-technology industry: 1997
7-8
High-technology exports
7-9
Export market share in high-technology industries: 1997
7-10
National consumption of high-technology products
7-11
Import share of domestic high-technology markets
7-12
U.S. merchandise trade balance
7-13
Three largest export markets for U.S. technology products: 1998
7-14
Top three foreign suppliers of technology products to the United States: 1998
7-15
U.S. trade balance in intellectual property
7-16
U.S. royalties and fees generated from the exchange of industrial processes between unaffiliated companies: 1997
7-17
Shares of total industrial R&D in OECD countries
7-18
U.S. industrial R&D performance: 1973-1996
7-19
Japanese industrial R&D performance: 1973-1996
7-20
EU 15 industrial R&D performance: 1973-1995
7-21
U.S. patents granted, by nationality of inventor
7-22
U.S. patents granted to foreign inventors, by nationality of inventor
7-23
Share of total patents awarded to nonresident inventors
7-24
Patents granted to nonresident inventors: 1996
7-25
U.S. venture capital disbursements, by industry category: 1988 and 1998
7-26
U.S. venture capital disbursements, by stage of financing: 1987-98

Chapter 8
Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding top

8-1
Indices of public interest in and self-assessed knowledge about scientific and technological issues: 1990-99
8-2
Indices of public interest in and self-assessed knowledge about scientific and technological issues, by sex and level of education: 1999
8-3
Public attentiveness to science and technology: 1999
8-4
Public understanding of scientific terms and concepts: 1999
8-5
Mean score on Index of Scientific Construct Understanding, by sex, level of education, and attentiveness to science and technology: 1999
8-6
Public understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry: 1999
8-7
Attitudes of scientists, legislators, and the public toward science and technology: 1997
8-8
Support for government funding of basic scientific research, by level of general support for or reservations about science and technology: 1999
8-9
Public confidence in leadership of selected institutions: 1973-98
8-10
Public assessment of scientific research: 1979-99 (selected years)
8-11
Public assessment of nuclear power: 1990-99 (selected years)
8-12
Public assessment of genetic engineering: 1985-99 (selected years)
8-13
Percentage of U.S. adults who view the harmful results of genetic engineering as outweighing the benefits: 1995, 1997, 1999
8-14
Public assessment of space exploration: 1985-99 (selected years)
8-15
U.S. public support for the use of dogs and chimpanzees in scientific research: 1999
8-16
Public access to computers: 1983-99
8-17
Home access to computers: 1995, 1997, 1999
8-18
Computer usage: average hours per year: 1995, 1997, 1999
8-19
Access to computers, by level of education: 1983-99 (selected years)
8-20
Percentage of the U.S. public reading a newspaper every day: 1979-99
8-21
Public perception of and reaction to the "Year 2000 bug": 1998-99
8-22
Scientists' agreement with various negative statements about the news media
8-23
Journalists' agreement with various negative statements about the news media
8-24
Public perception of whether astrology is scientific: 1979-99

Chapter 9
Significance of Information Technologies top

9-1
Technological components of an information processing system
9-2
Moore's Law
9-3
Price index for memory chips and microprocessors
9-4
Internet domain survey host count
9-5
Government support for computing research
9-6
Industry spending on IT equipment in the 1990s (current dollars)
9-7
PC penetration in households, 1997 or latest year
9-8
PCs per 100 white-collar workers, 1997
9-9
Number of Internet hosts per 1,000 inhabitants: January 1999
9-10
Secure Web servers for electronic commerce per 100,000 inhabitants: August 1998
9-11
U.S. electronic funds transfer volume
9-12
IT-producing industries' share of the economy: 1993-99
9-13
Employment in core IT occupations: 1983-98
9-14
Ratio of students per instructional computer and students per instructional computer with Internet access, by school characteristics: Fall 1998
9-15
Percentage of public schools with Internet access, by type of Internet connection: Fall 1996-98
9-16
Use of information technology in higher education instruction: 1994-99
9-17
Number of new submissions received at Los Alamos preprint server each month since August 1991
9-18
Number of connections each week at Los Alamos preprint server: 7/31/94-8/1/99
9-19
Peer-reviewed electronic publications
9-20
Growth in number of gigabytes on the Web
9-21
Growth of Genbank
9-22
Number of papers with authors from 15 or more countries or 15 or more U.S. institutions: 1986-97
9-23
Percentage of U.S. households owning a home computer and percentage of U.S. households with access to the Internet
9-24
U.S. household ownership of personal computers, by race/ethnicity: 1994 and 1998
9-25
Openness and its components: transparency, interactivity, and number of ministries


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