bypass all navigation science and engineering Indicators Home Page HTML contents page PDF contents page Help Page Comments Page Print format page
Indicators 2002
Introduction Overview Chapter 1: Elementary and Secondary Education Chapter 2: Higher Education in Science and Engineering Chapter 3: Science and Engineering Workforce Chapter 4: U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances Chapter 5: Academic Research and Development Chapter 6: Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding Chapter 8: Significance of Information Technology Appendix Tables
Chapter Contents:
Highlights
Introduction
How Well Do Our Students Perform Mathematics and Science?
Science and Mathematics Coursework
Content Standards and Statewide Assessments
Curriculum and Instruction
Teacher Quality and Changes in Initial Teacher Training
Teacher Professional Development
Teacher Working Conditions
IT in Schools
Transition to Higher Education
Conclusion
Selected Bibliography
 
Sidebars
Appendix Tables
List of Figures
Presentation Slides

Elementary and Secondary Education

Selected Bibliography

Achieve, Inc. 2000. High Standards: Giving All Students a Fair Shot. Policy Brief. Washington DC.

Achieve, Inc. 2001. Standards and Accountability: Strategies for Maintaining Momentum. Policy Brief. Washington DC.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Project 2061. 2000a. "Algebra for All — Not with Today’s Textbooks, Says AAAS." Press Release. Available at <http://www.project2061.org/newsinfo/press/rl000426.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 2000b. "Big Biology Books Fail to Convey Big Ideas, Reports AAAS’s Project 2061" Press Release. Available at <http://www.project2061.org/newsinfo/press/rl000627.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 1999a. "Heavy Books Light on Learning: Not One Middle Grades Science Text Rated Satisfactory." Press Release. Available at <http://www.project2061.org/newsinfo/press/rl092899.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 1999b. "Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks: A Benchmarks-Based Evaluation." Available at <http://www.project2061.org/matheval/intro.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

American Federation of Teachers (AFT). 2001. Making Standards Matter 2001. Washington DC. Available at <http://www.aft.org/edissues/standards/msm2001/>. Accessed 11/26/2001.

Anderson, R.A. 1996. "Study of Curriculum Reform—October 1996." Summary Review of Literature. Available at <http://www.ed.gov/pubs/SER/CurricReform/index.html>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Anderson, R.E., and A. Ronnkvist. 1999. The Presence of Computers in American Schools. Irvine, CA: Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, University of California, Irvine.

Ballou, D. 1996. "Do Public Schools Hire the Best Applicants?" The Quarterly Journal of Economics February: 97–133.

Baker, D.P., and D.P. Jones. 1993. "Creating Gender Equality: Cross-National Stratification and Mathematical Performance." Sociology of Education 66: 91–103.

Beaton, A., M. Martin, I. Mullis, E. Gonzalez, T. Smith, and D. Kelly. 1996a. Science Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center.

Beaton, A., I. Mullis, M. Martin, E. Gonzalez, D. Kelly, and T. Smith. 1996b. Mathematics Achievement in the Primary School Years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center.

Belden, Russonello, and Stewart Research and Communications. 2000. Making the Grade: Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Academic Standards and State Testing: Findings of National Survey of Public School Teachers for Education Week. Washington, DC.

Becker, H.J. 1997. "The Equity Threat of Promising Innovations: The Internet in Schools." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Chicago. Available at <http://nsn.bbn.com/dissemination/docs/equity.html>. Accessed March 16, 1999.

———. 1999. Conditions of Professional Use and Teacher-Directed Student Use Teaching, Learning, and Computing: 1998 National Survey Report #1. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, The University of California, Irvine.

Berman, P. 1988. "The Charter School Movement." Paper presented at a discussion sponsored by the California Education Policy Seminar and the California State University for Education Reform, Sacramento, CA.

Blank, R.K., and D. Langeson. 1997. State Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 1997: State-by-State Trends and New Indicators from the 1995–96 School Year. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Available at <http://www.ccsso.org/pdfs/Indicators97.pdf>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 1999. State Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 1999: State Trends and New Indicators from the 1997–98 School Year. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Available at <http://www.ccsso.org/SciMathIndicators99.html>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Bond, L.A. 1996. Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(2). Available at <http://ericae.net/pare/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Bybee, R.W. 1997. "The Sputnik Era: Why Is This Educational Reform Different from All Other Reforms." Prepared for the symposium "Reflecting on Sputnik: Linking the Past, Present, and Future of Educational Reform," Washington, DC, October 4, 1997.

California Education Policy Seminar and the California State University Institute for Education Reform Roundtable Proceedings, California State University (CSU). 1998. Charter Schools: National Concept, California Experience, Sacramento, CA, October 1, 1997.

Campbell, P.F., and M.L. Johnson. 1995. "How Primary Students Think and Learn." In I.M. Carl, ed., Prospects for School Mathematics: Seventy-five Years of Progress, pp. 21–42. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Carter, D., and R. Wilson. 1997. Fifteenth Annual Status Report on Minorities in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Chaney, B. 1995. Student Outcomes and the Professional Preparation of Eighth Grade Teachers in Science and Mathematics. Report prepared by the National Science Foundation. Rockville, MD: Westat, Inc.

Cicourel, A.V., and J. I. Kituse. 1963. The Educational Decision-Makers. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.

Coley, R.J., J. Cradler, and P.K. Engel. 1997. Computers and Classrooms: The Status of Technology in U.S. Schools. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center, Educational Testing Service.

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2000a. Key State Education Policies on K–12 Education: 2000. Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.ccsso.org/pdfs/KeyState2000.pdf>. Accessed 10/23/2001.

———. 2000b. Using Data on Enacted Curriculum in Mathematics & Science: Sample Results from a Study of Classroom Practices and Subject Content. Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.ccsso.org/pdfs/finalsummaryreport.pdf>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). 2001. New Tools for Analyzing Teaching, Curriculum, and Standards in Mathematics and Science. Washington, DC.

Council of the Great City Schools. n.d. Key Facts: 1997–98 Data About Council Member Districts. Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.cgcs.org/oldsite/reports/key%5Ffacts/index.cfm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Council of the Great City Schools and the College Board. 2001. Advancing Excellence in Urban Schools: A Report On Advanced Placement Examinations in the Great City Schools. Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.cgcs.org/oldsite/reports/home/AP_1999.PDF>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Darling-Hammond, L. 1998. Teachers and Teaching: Testing Policy Hypotheses from a National Commission Report. Educational Researcher 27(1): 5–15.

———. 2000. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives 8(1). Available at <http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/>.

DeBoer, G. 1984. "A Study of Gender Effects in the Science and Mathematics Course-Taking Behavior of a Group of Students Who Graduated from College in the Late 1970s," Journal of Research in Science Teaching 21:95–103.

Education Week. 1999. "Technology Counts ’99: Building the Digital Curriculum." Education Week 19 (4/September 23). Available at <http://www.edweek.org/sreports/tc99/articles/summary.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Education Trust. 1998. Education Watch 1998. State and National Databook, Vol. II. Washington, DC: Education Trust.

Ehrenberg, R.G., and D. Brewer. 1994. "Do School and Teacher Characteristics Matter? Evidence from High School and Beyond." Economics of Education Review 13(1): 1–17.

Ehrenberg, R.G., and D.J. Brewer. 1995. "Did Teachers’ Verbal Ability and Race Matter in the 1960s? Coleman Revisited." Economics of Education Review 14(1): 1–21.

Erickson, F. 1975. "Gatekeeping and the Melting Pot: Interaction in Counseling Encounters." Harvard Educational Review 45: 44–70.

Eyelon, B., and M.C. Linn. 1988. "Learning and Instruction: An Examination of Four Research Perspectives in Science Education." Review of Educational Research 58(3): 251–302.

Ferguson, R. 1991. "Paying for Public Education: New Evidence on How and Why Money Matters." Harvard Journal of Legislation 28 (summer): 465–98.

Ferguson, R.F. 1998. "Can Schools Narrow the Black-White Test Score Gap?" In C. Jencks, and M. Phillips, eds., The Black-White Test Score Gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Ferguson, R.F., and H. Ladd. 1996. "How and Why Money Matters: An Analysis of Alabama Schools." In H.F. Ladd, ed., Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Finn, C.E. and M.J. Petrilli. 2000. The State of State Standards 2000. Washington DC: The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Available at < http://www.edexcellence.net/library/soss2000/2000soss.html#2000>. Accessed 11/26/2001.

Flanders, J.R. 1987. "How Much of the Content in Mathematics Textbooks Is New." Arithmetic Teacher 35(1): 18–23.

Fordham, S., and J.H. Ogbu. 1986. "Black Students’ School Success: Coping With the ‘Burden of Acting White’" The Urban Review 18(3): 176–205.

Gamoran, A. 1997. "Curriculum Change as a Reform Strategy: Lessons from the United States and Scotland." Teachers College Record 98(4/summer): 608–28.

Geisinger, K.F. 1992. "Testing Limited English Proficient Students for Minimum Competency and High School Graduation." Proceedings of the Second National Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient Student Issues, Focus on Evaluation and Measurement. Washington DC: Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA). Available at <http://www.ncbe.gwu.edu/ncbepubs/symposia/second/vol2/testing.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Gitomer, D.H., A.S. Latham, and R. Ziomek. 1999. The Academic Quality of Prospective Teachers: The Impact of Admissions and Licensure Testing. Princeton, NJ: Teaching and Learning Division, Educational Testing Service.

Glennan, T.K., and A. Melmed. 1996. Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.

Goldhaber, D.D., and D.J. Brewer. 1997. "Evaluating the Effect of Teacher Degree Level on Educational Performance." In W. Fowler, ed., Developments in School Finance, 1996, pp. 197–210. NCES 97-535. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Green, P.J., B.L. Dugoni, S.J. Ingels, and E. Camburn. 1995. A Profile of the American High School Senior. NCES 95-384. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Greenwald, R., L.V. Hedges, and R.D. Laine. 1996. "The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement." Review of Educational Research 66 (3): 361–96. Available at <http://www.aera.net/pubs/rer/abs/rer663-6.htm>.

Hanson, S.L., M. Schaub, and D.P. Baker. 1996. "Gender Stratification in the Science Pipeline: A Comparative Analysis of Seven Countries," Gender and Society 10(3): 271–90.

Hanushek, E.A. 1992. "The Trade-Off Between Child Quantity and Quality." Journal of Political Economy 100(1): 84–117.

Hawkins, E., F. Stancavage, and J. Dossey. 1998. School Policies and Practices Affecting Instruction in Mathematics: Findings From the National Assessment of Educational Progress. NCES 98-495. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Hembree, R., and D.J. Dessart. 1986. "Effects of Hand-Held Calculators in Pre-College Mathematics Education: A Meta-Analysis." Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 17(2): 83–99.

Henke, R.R., X. Chen, and S. Geis. 2000. Progress through the Teacher Pipeline: 1992–93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary School Teaching as of 1997. NCES 2000-152. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Henke, R.R., X. Chen, and G. Goldman. 1999. What Happens in Classrooms? Instructional Practices in Elementary and Secondary Schools: 1994–95. NCES 1999-348. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Henke, R.R., S.P. Choy, X. Chen, S. Geis, and M.N. Alt. 1997. America’s Teachers: Profile of a Profession, 1993–94. NCES 97-460. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Henke, R.R., S. Geis, and J. Giambattista. 1996. Out of the Lecture Hall and into the Classroom: 1992–93 College Graduates and Elementary/Secondary School Teaching. NCES 96-899. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Heyns, B. 1974. "Social Selection and Stratification Within Schools." American Journal of Sociology 79: 89–102.

Ingersoll, R. 1995. Teacher Supply, Teacher Qualifications and Teacher Turnover: 1990–91. NCES 95-665. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1996. Out-of-Field Teaching and Educational Equality. NCES 96-040. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/96040.html>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 1997. "The Problem of Out-of-Field Teaching." Phi Delta Kappan Online. Available at <http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/king9806.htm>. Accessed June 1998.

———. 1999. "The Problem of Underqualified Teachers in American Secondary Schools." Educational Researcher 28(2): 26–37. Available at <http://www.aera.net/pubs/er/arts/28%2D02/ingsoll06.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). 1991. Model Standards for Beginning Teacher Licensing and Development: A Resource for State Dialogue. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Available at <http://www.ccsso.org/intasc.html>.

———. 1994. Next Steps: Moving Toward Performance-Based Licensing in Teaching. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

Kelly, E.M., B.H. Suzuki, and M.K. Gaillard. 1999. "Education Reform for a Mobile Population." Issues in Science and Technology 15 (summer): 37–9. Available at <http://www.nap.edu/issues/15.4/p_kelly.htm>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Landess, T. 1996. "The End of the Beginning: The Education Reform Movement From 1990 to 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.." Available from <http://www.ed.gov./pubs/Prog95/pt3back.html>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Lewis, L., B. Parsad, N. Carey, N. Bartfai, E. Farris, and B. Smerdon. 1999. Teacher Quality: A Report on the Preparation and Qualifications of Public School Teachers. NCES 1999-080. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Loveless, T., and P. Diperna. 2000. "The Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? Focus on Math Achievement." Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Maloy, K. 1993. Toward a New Science of Instruction: Programmatic Investigations in Cognitive Science and Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://www.ed.gov/pubs/InstScience/title.html>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

Martin, M., I. Mullis, A. Beaton, E. Gonzalez, T. Smith, and D. Kelly. 1997. Science Achievement in the Primary School Years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center. Available at <http://www.timss.org/TIMSS1/SciencA.html>.

Monk, D.H., and J. King. 1994. Multi-level Teacher Resource Effects on Pupil Performance in Secondary Mathematics and Science: The Role of Teacher Subject Matter Preparation. In R. Ehrenberg, ed., Contemporary Policy Issues: Choices and Consequences in Education. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press.

Mosteller, F., and D.P. Moynihan, eds. 1972. On Equality of Educational Opportunity. New York: Random House.

Mullens, J.E., M.S. Leighton, K.G. Laguarda, and E. O’Brien. 1996. Student Learning, Teacher Quality, and Professional Development: Theoretical Linkages, Current Measurement, and Recommendations for Future Data Collection. NCES 96-28. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Mullis, I., M. Martin, A. Beaton, E. Gonzalez, D. Kelly, and T. Smith. 1997. Mathematics Achievement in the Primary School Years: IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center. Available at <http://www.timss.org/TIMSS1/MathA.html>.

———. 1998. Mathematics and Science Achievement in the Final Year of Secondary School: IEA’s Third International Mathematics Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center. Available at <http://www.timss.org/TIMSS1/MathScienceC.html>.

Mullis, I., M. Martin, E. Gonzalez, K.D. Gregory, R.A. Garden, K.M. O’Connor, S.J. Chrostowski, and T. Smith. 2000. TIMSS 1999 International Mathematics Report. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, TIMSS International Study Center.

Murnane, R.J., and R. Levy. 1996a. Evidence from 15 Schools in Austin, Texas. In G. Burtless , ed., Does Money Matter? The Effect of School Resources on Student Achievement and Adult Success. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Murnane, R.J., and R. Levy. 1996b. Teaching the New Basic Skills: Principles for Educating Children to Thrive in a Changing Economy. New York: The Free Press.

Murnane, R.J., and R. Olsen. 1990. The Effects of Salaries and Opportunity Costs on Length of Stay in Teaching. The Journal of Human Resources 21(1): 106–124.

Murnane, R.J., and B.R. Phillips. 1981. Learning by Doing, Vintage, and Selection: Three Pieces of the Puzzle Relating Teaching Experience and Teaching Performance. Economics of Education Review 1(4): 453–65.

Murnane, R.J., J.D. Singer, J.B. Willett, J.J. Kemple, and R.J. Olson. 1991. Who Will Teach? Policies That Matter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). 1991. Toward High and Rigorous Standards for the Teaching Profession: Initial Policies and Perspectives of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards, 3rd ed. ED 337440. Detroit, MI.

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). 1995. Social Background Differences in High School Mathematics and Science Coursetaking and Achievement. NCES 95-206. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1996a. Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1995. NCES 96-854. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/96854.pdf>.

———. 1996b. The Condition of Education 1996. NCES 96-304. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1996c. Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Teaching, Learning, Curriculum, and Achievement in International Context. NCES 97-198. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1997a. Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, Fall 1996. NCES 97-944. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97944.html>.

———. 1997b. NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress. NCES 97-985. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfor.asp?pubid=97985R>.

———. 1997c. Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Fourth Grade Mathematics and Science Teaching, Learning, Curriculum, and Achievement in International Context. NCES 97-255. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1998a. The Condition of Education 1998. NCES 98-013. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/condition98/index.html>.

———. 1998b. Pursuing Excellence: A Study of U.S. Twelfth Grade Mathematics and Science Teaching, Learning, Curriculum, and Achievement in International Context. NCES 98-049. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1999a. The Condition of Education 1999. NCES 1999-022. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/condition99/>.

———. 1999b. Digest of Education Statistics, 1998. NCES 1999-036. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/digest98/>.

———. 1999c. Dropout Rates in the United States. NCES 1999-082. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999082.pdf>.

———. 1999d. Generational Status and Educational Outcomes Among Asian and Hispanic Eighth Graders. NCES 1999-020. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 1999e. Predicting the Need for Newly Hired Teachers in the United States to 2008–09. NCES 1999-026. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999026.pdf>.

———. 1999f. Status of Education Reform in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives. NCES 1999-045. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999045.pdf>.

———. 1999g. Teachers’ Quality: A Report on the Preparation and Qualifications of Public School Teachers. NCES 1999-080. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000a. The Condition of Education 2000. NCES 2000-062. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000b. The Digest of Education Statistics 1999. NCES 2000-031. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000c. Entry and Persistence of Women and Minorities in College Science and Engineering Education. NCES 2000-601. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000d. Monitoring School Quality: An Indicators Report. NCES 2001-030. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000e. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress: Three Decades of Student Performance. NCES 2000-469. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000f. Pursuing Excellence: Comparisons of International Eighth-Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement from a U.S. Perspective, 1995 and 1999. NCES 2001-028. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000g. Teachers’ Tools for the 21st Century: A Report on Teachers’ Use of Technology. NCES 2000-102. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2000h. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women. NCES 2000-030. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2001a. The 1998 High School Transcript Study Tabulations: Comparative Data on Credits Earned and Demographics for 1998, 1994, 1990, 1987, and 1982 High School Graduates. NCES 2001-498. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———. 2001b. The Condition of Education 2001. NCES 2001-072. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 2001c. The Digest of Education Statistics 2000. NCES 2001-034. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/digest/>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

———. 2001d. Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994–2000. NCES 2001-071. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

———.2001e. National Education Longitudinal Study: 1988/94, Data Analysis System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://www.nces.ed.gov/das/htm/surveys.html>. Last updated 8/7/01.

———. 2001f. The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2000. NCES 2001-517. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/mathematics/results/>. Accessed 10/24/2001.

National Commission on Excellence in Education (NCEE). 1983. A Nation At Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available at <http://www.goalline.org/Goal%20Line/NatAtRisk.html>.

National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (NCTAF). 1996. What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future. ED 395 931. New York. Available at <http://www.tc.edu/nctaf/>.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). 1989. Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for Schools’ Mathematics. Reston, VA.

———. 1991. Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Reston, VA.

National Education Commission on Time and Learning (NECTL). 1994. Prisoners of Time. Washington DC. Available at <http://www.ed.gov/pubs/PrisonersOfTime/>. Accessed August 12, 1999.

National Governor’s Association Center for Best Practices. n.d. What is Systemic, Standards-Based Reform? Available at <http://www.nga.org/center/topics/1,1188,D_ 413,00.html>. Accessed 3/31/2001.

National Research Council (NRC). 1996. The National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at <http://www.nap.edu/books/0309064767/html/>.

———. 1998. Grading the Nation’s Report Card : Evaluating NAEP and Transforming the Assessment of Educational Progress Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Available at <http://www.nap.edu/books/0309062853/html/index.html>.

National Science Board (NSB). 1998. Science and Engineering Indicators—1998. NSB 98-1. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at <http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind98/frames.htm>.

———. 1999. Preparing Our Children: Math and Science Education in the National Interest. NSB 99-31. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at <http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/documents/1999/nsb9931/nsb9931.htm>.

———. 2000. Science and Engineering Indicators—2000. NSB 00-1. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at <http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/>.

National Science Foundation (NSF). 1997a. "Foundations: A Monograph for Professionals in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education." In The Challenge and Promise of K-8 Science Education Reform, Volume 1. NSF 97-76. Washington, DC. Available at <http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf9776/nsf9776.pdf>.

———. 1997b. Women and Science: Celebrating Achievements, Charting Challenges. Conference report. NSF 97-75. Washington, DC.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). 1992. Scope, Sequence and Coordination: Content Core. Washington, DC. Available at <http://dev.nsta.org/ssc/>.

North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL). n.d. Available at <http://www.ncrel.org/>. Accessed March 1999.

O’Sullivan, C.Y., I.R. Weiss, and J.M. Askew. 1998. Students Learning Science: A Report on Policies and Practices in U.S. Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Oakes, J. 1985. Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale.

Oakes, J., A. Gamoran, and R. Page. 1992. "Curriculum Differentiation: Opportunities, Outcomes, and Meanings." In P.W. Jackson, ed., Handbook of Research on Curriculum. New York: Macmillan Publishing.

Odden, A., and C. Kelley. 1997. Paying Teachers for What They Know and Do: New and Smarter Compensation Strategies To Improve Schools. ED 404 312. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press..

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2000. Education at a Glance 2000: OECD Indicators. Paris.

Porter, A.C., J. Smithson, and E. Osthoff. 1994. "Standard Setting as a Strategy for Upgrading High School Mathematics and Science." In R.F. Elmore and S.H. Fuhrman, eds., The Governance of Curriculum: The 1994 ASCD Yearbook. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development), 138–66.

President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology. 1997. Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K–12 Education in the United States. Washington, DC: The White House.

Public Agenda. 2000. Survey Finds Little Sign of Backlash Against Academic Standards or Standardized Tests. New York.

Public Agenda Online. 2001. Reality Check 2001. New York. Available at <http://www.publicagenda.org/specials/rc2001/reality.htm>. Accessed 10/23/2001.

Reese, C.M., K.E. Miller, J. Mazzeo, and J.A. Dossey. 1997. NAEP 1996 Mathematics Report Card for the Nation and the States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Rivkin, S.G., E.A. Hanushek, and J.F. Kain. 1998. "Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement." Paper presented at the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, New York City.

Rosenbaum, J.E. 1976. Making Inequality. New York: Wiley.

———. 1980. "Track Misperceptions and Frustrated College Plans: An Analysis of the Effects of Tracks and Track Misperceptions in the National Longitudinal Survey." Sociology of Education 53: 74–88.

Sanderson, A., B. Dugoni, K. Rasinski, J. Taylor, and C.D. Carroll. 1996. Descriptive Summary Report. NCES 96-175. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Schmidt, W.H., C.C. McKnight, and S.A. Raizen. 1997. A Splintered Vision: An Investigation of U.S. Science and Mathematics Education. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Sells, L.W. 1978. "The Forum: Mathematics—A Critical Filter. The Science Teacher 1–4S(2): 28–9.

Shymansky, J.A., W.C. Kyle, Jr., and J.M. Alport. 1983. "The Effects of New Science Curricula on Students Performance." Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20(5): 387–404.

Smith, B. 1996. A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes From the Use of Calculators in Mathematics Education. Texas A&M doctoral dissertation 101.

Smith, J. 1996. "Does an Extra Year Make Any Difference? The Impact of Early Access to Algebra on Long-Term Gains in Mathematics Attainment." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 18(2): 141–53.

Smith, M.S., and J.A. O’Day. 1991. "Systemic School Reform." In S. Fuhrman and B. Malen, eds., The Politics of Curriculum and Testing, 1990 Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association. Washington, DC: Falmer Press, 233–67.

Smylie, M.A. 1996. "From Bureaucratic Control to Building Human Capital: The Importance of Teacher Learning in Education Reform." Educational Researcher 25(9): 9–11.

Sparks, D., and S. Loucks-Horsley. 1990. "Models of Staff Development." In W.R. Houston, ed., Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, pp. 234–50. New York: Macmillan Publishing.

Spillane, J.P., and J.S. Zeuli. 1999. "Reform and Teaching: Exploring Patterns of Practice in the Context of National and State Mathematics Reforms." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 21(1): 1–27. Available at <http://www.aera.net/pubs/eepa/abs/eepa2111.htm>.

Stigler, J.W., and H.W. Stevenson. 1991. "How Asian Teachers Polish Each Lesson to Perfection." American Educator 1(1): 12–47.

Stigler, J.W., P. Gonzales, T. Kanaka, S. Knoll, and A. Serrano. 1999. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States. NCES 1999-074. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/timssvid/index.html>.

Suydam, M.N. 1979. "The Use of Calculators in Pre-College Education: A State-of-the-Art Review." Columbus, OH: Calculator Information Center. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 171 573.

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Education Progress. n.d. Summary Data Tables. Available at <http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/tables/>.

Valdivieso, R., and S. Nicolau. 1992. Look Me in the Eye: A Hispanic Cultural Perspective on School Reform. ED 362 342.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Vance, V.S., and P.C. Schlechty. 1982. The Distribution of Academic Ability in the Teaching Force: Policy Implications. Phi Delta Kappan 22–27.

Wenglinsky, H. 1998. Does It Compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics. Policy Information Report. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.

White, K. 1999. "NRC Report Calls for Voucher Experiment." Education (September 15): 3.

Williams, C. 2000. Internet Access in Public Schools: 1994–99. NCES 2000-086. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

Wise, A.E. 1989. "If We Are Ever To ‘Professionalize’ School Teaching, Universities Must Redesign Education Programs." EJ 395 990. The Teacher Educator 24(4): 29–32.

Wise, A.E., and Leibrand, J. 1996. "Profession-Based Accreditation." Phi Delta Kappan 78(1): 202–6.


Note: Some web links may no longer be active because of changes at the referenced organization's web site.


Previous Section  Top of Section Next Section
home  |  help  |  comments
introduction  |  overview  |  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6  |  7  |  8  |  appendix tables