Within the U.S. civilian workforce, a group generically referred
to as "scientists and engineers" consists of people educated
in science (including life, physical, social, computer, and mathematical
sciences) and engineering (S&E) and people who, although not
educated in these fields, hold S&E occupations. This varied
workforce includes technicians and technologists, researchers, educators,
and managers of the S&E enterprise. Although these workers make
up only a small fraction (less than 5 percent) of the total U.S.
civilian workforce, their effect on society belies their numberscientists
and engineers contribute enormously to technological innovation
and economic growth, scientific and engineering research, and a
greater understanding of S&E.
This chapter first presents a profile of the U.S. S&E workforce,
including workforce size and various employment characteristics.
Information on the sex and racial or ethnic composition of the S&E
workforce is provided, followed by a description of labor market
conditions for recent bachelors, masters, and doctoral
S&E degree recipients. Discussions on the effects of age and
retirement on the S&E workforce and the projected demand for
S&E workers over 200010 are presented. The chapter concludes
by examining the global S&E workforce and the migration of scientists
and engineers to the United States.