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Indicators 2002
Introduction Overview Chapter 1: Elementary and Secondary Education Chapter 2: Higher Education in Science and Engineering Chapter 3: Science and Engineering Workforce Chapter 4: U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances Chapter 5: Academic Research and Development Chapter 6: Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace Chapter 7: Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding Chapter 8: Significance of Information Technology Appendix Tables
Chapter Contents:
Public Interest in and Knowledge of S&T
Public Attitudes Toward S&T, Scientific Research, Federal Funding of Scientific Research, and Specific Science-Related Issues
Public Image of the Science Community
Where Americans Get Information About S&T
Science Fiction and Pseudoscience
Selected Bibliography
Appendix Tables
List of Figures
Presentation Slides

Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Public Understanding

Selected Bibliography


American Association of Engineering Societies. 1998. "American Perspectives on Engineers & Engineering." A "Harris Poll" Pilot Study conducted for AAES. Washington, DC: American Association of Engineering Societies.

American Chemical Society. 2000. National Benchmark Telephone Survey. Wirthlin Worldwide. Draft Report. Washington, DC. July. Available at <>

Bainbridge, W.S. 1982. "The Impact of Science Fiction on Attitudes Toward Technology." In E.M. Emme, ed. Science Fiction and Space Futures: Past and Present. San Diego, CA: Univelt.

Barman, C.R. 1997. "Completing the Study: High School Students' Views of Scientists and Science." Science and Children 36(7): 16–21.

———. 1997. "Students' Views of Scientists and Science: Results from a National Study." Science and Children 35(1): 18–23.

Barrett, G. 2001. "Can the Living Talk to the Dead? Psychics Say They Connect with the Spirit World, but Skeptics Respond: ‘Prove It'. USA Today, June 20.

Bayer Corporation and the National Science Foundation. 2000. Bayer Facts of Science Education VI: Science, Technology and Society. June. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization.

Bayer Corporation and the National Science Foundation. 2001. The Bayer Facts of Science Education VII: The State of America's New Workforce. April. Merriam, KS: Market Research Institute.

Borger, J. 2001. "Conspiracy Theory Turns to Moonshine." Guardian Unlimited April 10. Available at <,4273,4168307,00.html>.

Brooks, D.J. 2001. "Substantial Numbers of Americans Continue to Doubt Evolution as Explanation for Origin of Humans." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. March 5. Available at <>.

Brown, I. 2000. "Hearing from Dearly Departed Proves a Hit on Sci Fi Channel." Los Angeles Times. March 5.

Carlson, D.K. 2001. "Public Views NASA Positively, but Generally Disinterested in Increasing its Budget." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. March 8. Available at <>.

Carroll, J. 2001. "Americans Oppose Human Cloning." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. June 27. Available at <>.

Carter, B.. 2001. "TV Notes: No More Mr. Nice Guy." New York Times. March 14.

Chambers, D.W. 1983. "Stereotypic Images of the Scientist: The Draw-A-Scientist Test." Science Education 67(12): 255–65.

Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development. 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America's Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Davis, P.J. 2001. "Making Mathematics Part of the Equation of Life." Chronicle of Higher Education. April 13.

Davis, J.A. and T.W. Smith. Annual Series. General Social Surveys, Cumulative Codebook. Annual Series. Chicago: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center.

Dawkins, R. 1998. Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion, and the Appetite for Wonder. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Duffy, T., S. Muzzy, and W. Robb. Forthcoming. Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology: Methodological Report. New York: ORC Macro.

Dunlap, R.E., and L. Saad. 2001. "Only One in Four Americans Are Anxious About the Environment." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. April 16. Available at <>.

Eisenberg, D.M., R.B. Davis, S.I. Ettner, and others. 1998. "Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in the United States, 1990–1997: Results of a Follow-up National Survey." Journal of the American Medical Association 280: 1569–75.

Fort, D.C. and H.L. Varney. 1989. "How Students See Scientists: Mostly Male, Mostly White and Mostly Benevolent." Science and Children 26(8): 8–13.

Gallup News Service. 2000. "Kansas Voters Fail to Re-Nominate Anti-Evolution School Board Members." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. August 2. Available at <>.

———. 2001. "Did Men Really Land on the Moon?" Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. February 15. Available at <>.

Gallup Organization. Gallup Poll Topics: A-Z. "Health and Health Care."

Gallup Poll Editors. 2001. "Education Reform: The Public's Opinion." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. January 24. Available at: <>.

Gaskell, G., Allum, N., Bauer, M., Durant, J., et al. 2000. "Biotechnology and the European Public." Nature Biotechnology 18 (September): 935-938.

Gaskell, G., and Bauer, M.W., eds. 2001. Biotechnology 1996–2000: The Years of Controversy. London: Science Museum Press and East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press.

Gendall, P., Smith, Tom W., and Russell, D. 1995. "Knowledge of Scientific and Environomental Facts: A Comparison of Six Countries." Available at <>.

Gerbner, G., and B. Linson. 1999. "Images of Scientists in Prime Time Television: A Report for the U.S. Department of Commerce for the Cultural Indicators Research Project." Unpublished report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Goldman, S.L. 1989. "Images of Technology in Popular Films: Discussion and Filmography." Science, Technology, and Human Values (Summer): 275-301.

Goldstein, K. 2001. "$28 Million in Political TV Issue Ads Since January." Press Release. University of Wisconsin. Available at <>.

Gup, T. 2000. "Life is an Essay, Not Multiple Choice." Washington Post, August 6.

Hebel, S. 2000. "U.S. Workers Value General Skills Over Specific Ones, Survey on Education Finds." The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 14. John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers University Center for Survey Research Analysis, University of Connecticut "Making the Grade? What American Workers Think Should Be Done to Improve Education."

Hopkin, K. 2001. "The Risks on the Table." Scientific American, April. Available at <>.

Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P.J., and Xiaosu, D., eds. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

International Food Information Council. 2000. "U.S. Consumer Attitudes Toward Food Biotechnology." Wirthlin Group Quorum Surveys October 8–12, 1999, February 5–8, 1999, March 21–24, 1997, and May 5–9, 2000. Available at <>.

International Food Information Council. 2001. "What Consumers Have to Say about Food Biotechnology." NewsBite. Food Insight March/April 2001. Available at <>.

Irwin, H. 1993. "A Study of the Measurement and the Correlates of Paranormal Belief." Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 79: 301–26.

Jenkins-Smith, H.C., C.L. Silva, A. Vedlitz, and G.D. Whitten. 2001. "Technological Controversies and Complex Publics: Benefits, Risks and Acceptance of Genetically Modified Organisms." University of New Mexico Institute for Public Policy and Texas A&M University Institute for Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Presented before the National Science Foundation, May.

Kansas City Star-Wichita Eagle. 1999. "Evolution Poll Results." November 7. Available from <>.

Kimmel, L. 1997. "Public Attitudes about the Use of Animals in Scientific Research." Paper presented at a conference, "Hot Topics about Research Animal Welfare." Sponsored by the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare and The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas (December 11-12).

Kolata, G. 2000. "A Hit Movie is Rated ‘F' in Science." New York Times, April 11.

Lewenstein, B. Forthcoming. "Science Books Since World War II." History of the Book in America, vol. 5. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Maienschein, J., et al.. 1999. "Commentary: To the Future. Argument for Scientific Literacy." Science Communication (September): 101-13.

Mead, M., and R. Metraux. 1957. "Image of the Scientist among High School Students: A Pilot Study," Science 126: 386-87.

Miller, J.D., and L. Kimmel. 1999. Public Attitudes Toward Science and Technology, 1979–1999, Integrated Codebook. Chicago: International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy, Chicago Academy of Sciences.

———. 2001. Procedures for Coding Verbatim Responses to Open-ended Questions. Chicago: International Center for the Advancement of Scientific Literacy, Chicago Academy of Sciences.

Miller, J.D., L. Kimmel, and M. Hess. 2000. 1999 Study of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology: Methodological Report. Chicago: Chicago Academy of Sciences.

Miller, J.D., C. Midden, E. Einsiedel, and L. Kimmel. 1999. Attitudes toward Biotechnology in Canada, the European Union, and the United States. Unpublished manuscript.

Miller, J.D., R. Pardo, and F. Niwa. 1997. Public Perceptions of Science and Technology: A Comparative Study of the European Union, the United States, Japan, and Canada. Chicago: Chicago Academy of Sciences.

Miller, J.D., and K. Prewitt. 1979. "The Measurement of the Attitudes of the U.S. Public Toward Organized Science." Report to the National Science Foundation under Contract SRS78-16839. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.

Miller, J.D., K. Prewitt, and R. Pearson. 1980. "The Attitudes of the U.S. Public Toward Science and Technology." Report to the National Science Foundation under NSF Grant 8105662. DeKalb, IL: Public Opinion Laboratory.

Moore, D.W. 2001. "Microsoft Still Enjoys Public Favor." Poll Analyses. July 5, 2001. Gallup News Service. July 5. Available at: <>.

National Science Board. 1999. "National Science Board Statement on the Action of the Kansas Board of Education on Evolution." NSB 99-149 (August 20). Available at <>.

———. 2000. Communicating Science and Technology in the Public Interest. NSB-00-99. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at <>.

National Science Foundation. 2001. Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Newport, F., and L. Saad. 2001. "Americans Consider Global Warming Real, but Not Alarming." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. April 9. Available at <>.

Newport, F., and M. Strausberg. 2001. "Americans' Belief in Psychic and Paranormal Phenomena Is up Over Last Decade." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. June 8. Available at: <>.

Office of Science and Technology and The Wellcome Trust. 2000. "Science and the Public: A Review of Science Communication and Public Attitudes to Science in Britain." October 2000.

Park, R. 2000a. Letter to the Washington Post Book World. July 23.

———. 2000b. Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford University Press.

People for the American Way Foundation. 2000. Evolution and Creationism in Public Education: An In-depth Reading of Public Opinion. Survey prepared by DYG, Inc. Washington, DC: People for the American Way. Available at

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 1997. "America's Place in the World II: More Comfort with Post-Cold War Era." October 10. Available at <>.

———. 1999a. "Optimism Reigns, Technology Plays Key Role: Americans Look to the 21st Center." October 24. Available at <>.

———. 1999b. "Technology Triumphs, Morality Falters: Public Perspectives on the American Century." July 3. Available at <>.

———. 2000a. "Education and Maintaining Prosperity Are Top 2000 Priorities." January 19. Available at <>.

———. 2000b. "Internet Sapping Broadcast News Audience: Investors Now Go Online for Quotes, Advice." Biennial Media Consumption survey. June 11. Available at <>.

———. 2000c. "Rising Price of Gas Draws Most Public Interest in 2000." December 25. Available at <>.

———. 2000d. "Public Attentiveness to News Stories: 1986-2000." News Interest Index: A record of public attentiveness to news stories. Available at <>.

———. 2001. Public Agenda Online. Survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates. Available at detail2.cfm?issue_type=medical_research&proposal_ graphic=mpspending.gif.

Pfau, M., J. Cho, and K. Chong. 2001. "Communication Forms in U.S. Presidential Campaigns: Influences on Candidate Perceptions and the Democratic Process." Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics. 6(4): 88–105.

Priest, S.H. 2000. "U.S. Public Opinion Divided over Biotechnology?" Nature Biotechnology 18 (September): 939–42.

Prime Minister's Office. 1995 "Public Opinion Survey of Relations of Science and Technology to Society." Survey taken in February 1995, and "Public Opinion Survey of Future Science and Technology." 2001. Survey taken in October 1998. S&T Today 14(6):12. Tokyo: Japan Foundation of Public Communication on Science and Technology.

Rahm, J., and P. Charbonneau. 1997. "Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists." American Journal of Physics 65(8): 774–78.

Reid, T.R. 2001. "In Europe, the Ordinary Takes a Frightening Turn." Washington Post March 1.

Rensberger, B. 2000. "The Nature of Evidence." Science 289(July): 61.

Research!America. 2001. Research!America. Poll Data Booklet. Volume 2. Alexandria, VA: Research!America.

Rosa, L., Rosa, E., Sarner, L., and Barrett, S. 1998. "A Close Look at Therapeutic Touch." Journal of the American Medical Association. 279(13): 1005–10.

Saad, L. 2001. "Biotech Food Remains Fairly Obscure to Most Americans." Gallup News Service. Poll analyses. August 6. Available at <>.

Shanahan, J., D. Scheufele, and E. Lee. 2001. "The Polls—Trends: Attitudes about Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Organisms." Public Opinion Quarterly 65(2): 267–81.

Sheffield, L.J. 1997. "From Doogie Howser to Dweebs—or How We Went in Search of Bobby Fischer and Found that We are Dumb and Dumber." Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 2(6): 376–79.

Shermer, M. 1997. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

"Six that will Define our Future." 2000 Popular Science January: 47–61

Sparks, G.G., C.L. Nelson, and R.G. Campbell. 1997. "The Relationship Between Exposure to Televised Messages About Paranormal Phenomena and Paranormal Beliefs." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 41(summer): 345–59.

Taylor, H. 2000. "Doctors Seen as Most Prestigious of Seventeen Professions and Occupations, Followed by Scientists (#2), Teachers (#3), Ministers/Clergy (#4) and Military Officers (#5)." Harris Interactive. The Harris Poll. Available at

TIME/CNN Poll, Friday, March 16, 2001. Available at,8816,99005,00.html.

Tsou, C-L. 1998. "Science and Scientists in China." Science 280(April 24): 528–29.

Note:  Some web links may no longer be active because of changes at the referenced organization's web site.

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