This section profiles the U.S. S&E labor force, providing specific
information about its size, recent growth patterns, projected labor
demand, and trends in sector of employment. It also looks at workers'
use of their S&E training, educational background, and salaries.
The S&E labor force includes both individuals in S&E occupations
and many others with S&E training who may use their knowledge
in a variety of different jobs. Employment in S&E occupations
has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is currently projected
to continue to grow faster than general employment through the next
decade. Although most individuals with S&E degrees do not work
in occupations with formal S&E titles, most of them, even at
the bachelor's degree level, report doing work related to their
degree even in mid- and late-career. Compared with the general labor
force, S&E occupations generally have lower unemployment rates.
However, the economic downturn that began in 2001 has caused S&E
unemployment rates to rise faster than the national average, narrowing
that gap. The proportion of women and ethnic minorities in the S&E
labor force continues to grow but, with the exception of Asian/Pacific
Islanders, remains smaller than their proportion of the overall
Estimates of the size of the U.S. S&E workforce vary based
on the criteria used to define scientist or engineer.
Education, occupation, field of degree, and field of employment
are all factors that may be considered.
(See sidebar, "Who Is a Scientist or an Engineer?"
table 3-1 .)
The size of the S&E workforce in 1999 (the most recent year
for which both occupational and education information are available)
varies between approximately 3 million and 10 million individuals,
depending on the definition and perspective used. Although the Bureau
of Labor Statistics' (BLS) Current Population Survey (CPS) counted
5.3 million individuals in S&E occupations, a separate NSF survey
found 3.3 million holders of S&E degrees in S&E occupations
and BLS 2001). This difference may
reflect the inclusion of both individuals employed in S&E occupations
who did not earn at least a bachelor's degree and individuals with
non-S&E degrees; it may also partially stem from other technical
differences between the surveys.
In 1999, 10.5 million employed individuals had at least one degree
in an S&E field. This broader definition of the S&E workforce
relates to many of the ways science and technical knowledge is used
in the United States.
Despite some limitations in measuring the S&E labor force,
occupation classifications allow examination of growth in at least
one measure of scientists and engineers over extended periods. Using
data from the decennial census, the number of college graduates
working in narrowly defined S&E occupations (excluding technicians
and computer programmers) and employed outside academia increased
by 159 percent between 1980 and 2000, to a total of 3.6 million
jobs in 2000 (figure 3-1
This represents a 4.9 percent average annual growth rate, much more
than the 1.1 percent average annual growth rate of the entire labor
Although every broad S&E occupational group grew between 1980
and 2000 (the lowest growth, 81 percent, occurred in physical sciences),
the most explosive growth was in mathematics and computer sciences,
which experienced a 623 percent increase (177,000 jobs in 1980 compared
with 1.28 million jobs in 2000).
Using data from the monthly CPS from 1993 to 2002 to look at employment
in S&E occupations across all sectors and education levels creates
a very similar view, albeit with some significant differences. The
3.1 average annual growth rate in all S&E employment is almost
triple the rate for the general workforce. This is reflected in
the growing proportion of total jobs in S&E occupations, which
increased from 2.6 percent in 1983 to 3.8 percent in 2002. Also
noteworthy are the decreases in employment in S&E occupations
between 1991 and 1992 and between 2001 and 2002evidence that
S&E employment is not exempt from economic downturns (figure
The most recent occupational projections from the BLS, for the
period from 200010, predict that employment in S&E occupations
will increase about three times faster than the overall growth rate
for all occupations (table
(Although BLS made these projections before the most recent economic
downturn, they may still be indicative of long-term trends.) The
economy as a whole is expected to provide approximately 15 percent
more jobs over this decade, with employment opportunities for S&E
jobs expected to increase by 2.2 million jobs, or about 47 percent
Approximately 86 percent of the projected increase in S&E jobs
is in computer-related occupations. Indeed, without computer and
mathematical occupations, the projected growth in S&E occupational
employment would be just slightly more than overall employment growth
The number of jobs for computer software engineers is expected to
increase from 697,000 to 1.4 million and employment for computer
systems analysts is expected to grow from 431,000 to 689,000 jobs.
Within engineering occupations, environmental engineering is projected
to have the biggest relative employment gains, increasing by 14,000
jobs or about 27 percent. Computer hardware engineering is also
expected to experience above-average employment gains, growing by
25 percent. Employment for all engineering occupations is expected
to increase by less than 10 percent.
Projected job opportunities in life science occupations will grow
by almost 18 percent (33,000 new jobs) from 2000 to 2010. At 27
percent (10,000 new jobs), medical science occupations will experience
the largest predicted growth. BLS expects employment in physical
science occupations to increase by about 18 percent (from 239,000
to 283,000 jobs), with slightly less than half of these projected
job gains for environmental scientists (21,000 new jobs).
Finally, predictions indicate that social science occupations will
experience above-average growth of 20 percent, largely due to the
employment increases anticipated for market and survey researchers
(27 percent or 30,000 new jobs).
Although the majority of S&E degree holders do not work in
S&E occupations, this does not mean they do not use their S&E
training. In 1999, of the 5 million individuals whose highest degree
was in a S&E field and who did not work in S&E occupations,
67 percent indicated that they worked in a job at least somewhat
related to the field of their highest S&E degree (table
According to 1999 SESTAT data, almost 80 percent of individuals
whose highest degree earned was in mathematics or computer sciences
and who worked in non-S&E jobs reported working in fields related
to their degree, compared with 63 percent of individuals whose highest
degree earned was in social or physical sciences.
Of all employed individuals whose highest degree was in S&E,
77 percent reported their jobs as at least somewhat related to the
fields of their highest degree and 46 percent reported their jobs
as closely related to their field (appendix
and 3-6 ).
In the 14-year period after receiving their degrees, 73 percent
of S&E doctorate holders say that they have jobs closely related
to the degrees they received compared with 68 percent of master's
degree recipients and 42 percent of bachelor's degree recipients
This relative ordering of relatedness by level of degree holds across
all periods of years since recipients received their degrees. However,
at every degree level, the relatedness of job to degrees falls with
time since degree.
There are many good reasons for this trend: individuals may change
their career interests over time, gain skills in different areas
while working, take on general management responsibilities, and
forget some of their original college training (or some of their
original college training may become obsolete). Given these possibilities,
the career-cycle decline in the relevance of an S&E degree is
only modest. When a somewhat weaker criterion is usedare jobs
"closely" or "somewhat" related to an individual's field
of highest degreeeven higher proportions of S&E graduates
report their jobs being related to their degrees. Over 70 percent
of S&E bachelor's degree holders report their jobs at least
somewhat related to their field of degree until 25-29 years after
their degrees. Among S&E doctorate holders at any point in their
careers, less than 10 percent report their jobs as not related to
their field of degree (figure
About 5 million S&E degree holders worked in non-S&E occupations
in 1999. Slightly more than half held management or administrative
positions (28 percent), sales and marketing jobs (15 percent), or
K12 teaching posts (9 percent). About 89 percent of non-S&E
K12 teachers reported their work as at least somewhat related
to their S&E degree compared with approximately 73 percent of
managers and administrators and 51 percent of individuals holding
sales and marketing jobs table
About 83 percent of the 5 million S&E degree holders not working
in S&E occupations in 1999 reported their highest degree as
a bachelor's degree; 15 percent listed a master's degree; and 3
percent, a doctorate. Among individuals with a bachelor's degree,
approximately two-thirds reported their jobs as closely or somewhat
related to their field of highest degree compared with four-fifths
of S&E doctoral degree recipients and master's degree recipients
(table 3-3 ).
Because S&E knowledge is used so widely across so many different
jobs, a count of individuals in S&E occupations is one of the
narrowest definitions of the S&E labor force. Of the nearly
8 million individuals in the labor force in 1999 whose highest degree
earned was in an S&E field, slightly more than one-third (3
million) worked in S&E occupations. In addition, 2.5 million
people who had received training in S&E disciplines, but whose
highest degree was in a non-S&E field, were employed in S&E
occupations. Another 282,000 college-educated individuals were employed
in S&E occupations but did not hold a degree in an S&E field
(table 3-5 ).
Altogether, approximately 3.5 million individuals with S&E
degrees worked in S&E occupations in 1999 (appendix
table 3-7 ).
Engineers represented 39 percent (1.37 million), and computer scientists
and mathematicians, 33 percent (1.17 million). Physical scientists
accounted for less than 9 percent.
By subfield, electrical engineers made up about one-fourth (362,300)
of all individuals employed as engineers, whereas biologists accounted
for about three-fifths (206,500) of employment in life sciences.
In physical and social science occupations, chemistry (121,700)
and psychology (197,000), respectively, were the largest occupational
Approximately 56 percent of individuals employed in S&E occupations
reported a bachelor's degree as their highest degree earned, whereas
about 29 percent listed a master's degree and 14 percent, a doctorate.
Almost half of bachelor's degree recipients were engineers; slightly
more than one-third were computer scientists and mathematicians.
These occupations were also the most prominent among individuals
with master's degrees, at approximately 37 and 34 percent, respectively
(table 3-6 ).
A two-decades long view of unemployment trends in S&E occupations,
regardless of education level, comes from the CPS data for 1983-2002.
During this 20-year period, the unemployment rate for all individuals
in S&E occupations ranged from a low of 1.4 percent in 1999
to a high of 3.9 percent in 2002. Overall, the S&E occupational
unemployment rate was both lower and less volatile than either the
rate for all U.S. workers (ranging from 3.9 to 9.9 percent) or for
S&E technicians (ranging from 2.0 to 6.1 percent). During the
period, computer programmers had a similar unemployment rate compared
with the rate for all S&E occupations, but greater volatility
(ranging from 1.2 to 6.5 percent). The most recent recession in
2002 appears to have had a strong impact on S&E employment,
with the differential between S&E and general unemployment falling
to only 1.9 percentage points, compared with 6.9 percentage points
in 1983 (figure 3-7
This may be due to the unusually strong reductions in research and
development in the information and related technology sectors (see
The 1999 unemployment rate among the approximately 3.5 million
college-educated individuals with S&E occupations in the labor
force reached only 1.6 percent, or 56,000 individuals, compared
with 4.4 percent for the U.S. labor force as a whole and 1.9 percent
for all professional specialty workers (table
Unemployment for college graduates working in S&E occupations
dropped steadily from 1993, when it stood at 2.6 percent, to 1999.
In the latter year, physical scientists had the highest unemployment
rate (1.9 percent), and computer scientists and mathematicians,
the lowest (1.2 percent). By degree level, 1.6 percent of S&E
bachelor's degree recipients and master's degree recipients were
unemployed, compared with 1.2 percent of doctorate holders.
compares unemployment rates over career cycles for bachelor's degree
holders and doctorate holders in 1993 and in 1999. Looking at field
of degree rather than occupation includes both individuals who might
have left an S&E occupation for negative economic reasons and
individuals who moved into other careers due to more positive factors.
The generally stronger 1999 labor market had its greatest effect
on bachelor's degree holders: for individuals at every point in
their careers, the unemployment rate dropped by about 2 percentage
points between 1993 and 1999. Although labor market conditions had
a lesser effect on doctorate holders' unemployment rates, significant
reductions in unemployment rates between 1993 and 1999 did occur
for those individuals at both the beginning and the end of their
Similarly, labor market conditions from 1993 to 1999 had a greater
effect on the portion of bachelor's degree holders who said they
were working involuntarily out of the field (IOF) of their highest
degree than on doctorate holders (Figure
However, the greatest differences in IOF rates for bachelor's degree
holders occurred not at the beginning and end of their careers,
but in midcareer. For doctorate holders, IOF rates changed little
either between 1993 and 1999 or throughout most of their careers.
The decline in IOF rates for the oldest doctorate holders may partially
reflect lower retirement rates for individuals working in their
fields. Taken together with the unemployment patterns shown in figure
this finding implies that more highly educated S&E workers are
less vulnerable to changes in economic conditions than individuals
who hold only bachelor's degrees.
The private, for-profit sector is by far the largest provider of
S&E employment. In 1999, approximately 73 percent of individuals
working as scientists and engineers who had bachelor's degrees and
62 percent of persons who had master's degrees worked for private,
for-profit companies. However, the majority of individuals with
doctorates (51 percent) worked in the academic sector. Sectors that
employ fewer S&E workers include educational institutions other
than 4-year colleges and universities, nonprofit organizations,
and state or local government agencies (appendix
table 3-9 ).
The percentage of scientists and engineers employed in private,
for-profit industry varies greatly for different S&E occupations.
Although slightly more than three-fourths of both mathematical/computer
scientists and engineers (76 and 78 percent, respectively) worked
in this sector in 1999, only about one-fourth (27 percent) of life
scientists and one-fifth (19 percent) of social scientists did so.
Educational institutions employed the largest percentages of life
scientists (48 percent) and social scientists (45 percent) (appendix
table 3-9 ).
(See sidebar, "Educational Distribution of S&E
A similar pattern appears when looking at S&E degree holders,
regardless of whether they work in S&E occupations (figures
For-profit business employs 58 percent of all individuals whose
highest degree is in S&E, including 34 percent of S&E doctorate
holders. Four-year colleges and universities are a more important
employer for S&E doctorate holders (42 percent). However, it
should be noted that this figure includes a variety of employment
types other than tenure track; only 27.6 percent of S&E doctorate
holders in the labor force are employed in tenured or tenure-track
positions (See sidebar, "Who Performs Research and
In 1999, bachelor's degree holders employed in S&E occupations
had a median annual salary of $59,000; master's degree holders,
$64,000; and doctorate holders, $68,000 (table
table 3-12 ).
From 1993 to 1999, median salaries for individuals employed in
S&E occupations rose about 25 percent in current dollars. Computer
scientists and mathematicians experienced the largest salary growth
(37 percent), followed by engineers (30 percent). By degree level,
median salaries for bachelor's degree recipients rose by 31 percent,
followed by master's degree recipients at 28 percent.
Education produces far more dramatic effects on the "tails" of
the distribution (the proportion with either very high or very low
earnings) than on median earnings. In 1999, 5 percent of S&E
bachelor's degree holders had salaries greater than $100,000, compared
with 16 percent of doctorate holders. Similarly, 21 percent of bachelor's
degree holders earned less than $30,000, compared with 5 percent
of doctorate holders. The latter figure is inflated due to the inclusion
of postdocs. (The Survey of Doctorate Recipients defines postdoc
as a temporary position awarded in academia, industry, or government
for the primary purpose of receiving additional research training.)
illustrates the distribution of salaries earned by individuals with
Women and Minorities in S&E
Demographic factors for women and minorities (such as age and years
in the workforce, field of S&E employment, and highest degree
level achieved) influence employment patterns. Demographically,
men differ from women, and minorities differ from nonminorities;
thus, their employment patterns also are likely to differ. For example,
because larger numbers of women and minorities entered S&E fields
only recently, women and minority men generally are younger than
non-Hispanic white males and have fewer years of experience (appendix
table 3-13 ).
Age and stage in career in turn influence such employment-related
factors as salary, position, tenure, and work activity. In addition,
employment patterns vary by field (see sidebar, "Growth
of Representation of Women, Minorities, and the Foreign Born in
S&E Occupations") and these differences influence S&E
employment, unemployment, salaries, and work activities. Highest
degree earned, yet another important influence, particularly affects
primary work activity and salary.
Representation of Women in S&E
Women constituted almost one-fourth (24.7 percent) of the college-educated
workforce in S&E occupations but close to half (46 percent)
of the total U.S. workforce in 1999. Although changes in the NSF/SRS
surveys do not permit analysis of long-term trends in employment,
short-term trends indicate an increase in female doctorate holders
employed in S&E. In 1993, women constituted 20 percent of doctorate
holders in S&E occupations in the United States; in 1995, 22
percent; in 1997, 23 percent; and in 1999, 24 percent.
Age Distribution and Experience. Differences in age and
related time spent in the workforce account for many of the differences
in employment characteristics between men and women. On average,
women in the S&E workforce are younger than men (figure
50 percent of women and 36 percent of men employed as scientists
and engineers in 1999 received their degrees within the past 10
years. The difference is even more profound at the doctorate level,
where there is a much greater concentration of female doctorate
holders in their late thirties. One clear consequence of this age
distribution is that a much larger proportion of male scientists
and engineers at all degree levels, but particularly at the doctorate
level, will reach traditional retirement age during the next decade.
This alone will have a significant effect upon gender ratios, and
also perhaps on the numbers of female scientists in positions of
authority as the large proportion of female doctorate holders in
their late thirties moves into their forties.
S&E Occupation. Representation of men and women also
differs according to field of occupation. For example, in 1999,
women constituted 54 percent of social scientists, compared with
23 percent of physical scientists and 10 percent of engineers (figure
Within engineering, female representation is greater in some fields
than in others. For example, women constituted 15 percent of chemical
and industrial engineers, but only 6 percent of aerospace, electrical,
and mechanical engineers. Since 1993, the percentage of women in
most S&E occupations has gradually increased. However, in mathematics
and computer sciences, the percentage of women declined about 4
percentage points between 1993 and 1999 (figure
table 3-13 ).
Educational Background. In many occupational fields, male
scientists generally have higher education levels than female scientists.
In the science workforce as a whole, 16 percent of women and 20
percent of men have achieved doctorate degrees. In biology, those
figures stand at 26 percent of women and 40 percent of men; in chemistry,
14 percent of women and 27 percent of men; and in psychology, 22
percent of women and 42 percent of men. Engineering figures, however,
differ much less, as about 5 percent of women and 6 percent of men
have doctorates (NSF/SRS 1999c). Differences in
highest degree achieved influence differences in type of work performed,
employment in S&E jobs, and salaries.
Labor Force Participation, Employment, and Unemployment. Male
scientists and engineers are more likely to be in the labor force,
employed full time, and/or employed in their field of highest degree.
Women are more likely to be out of the labor force, employed part
time, and/or employed involuntarily outside their fields (IOF).
Many of these differences are due to differences in age distributions
of men and women.
Unemployment rates for men and women in S&E occupations were
similar in 1999: 1.5 percent of men and 1.8 percent of women were
unemployed. By comparison, the unemployment rate in 1993 was 2.8
percent for men and 2.2 percent for women (table
table 3-14 )
Salaries. In 1999, female scientists and engineers earned
a median annual salary of $50,000, about 22 percent less than the
median annual salary earned by male scientists and engineers ($64,000).
Between 1993 and 1999, median annual salaries for female scientists
and engineers increased by 25 percent, compared with an increase
of 28 percent for their male counterparts (table
Several factors may contribute to these salary differentials. Women
more often work in educational institutions, in social science occupations,
and in nonmanagerial positions; they also tend to have less experience.
In 1999, among scientists and engineers in the workforce who have
held their degrees for 5 years or less, women earned an average
median annual salary that was 83 percent of that earned by men.
Salary differentials varied by broad field. In computer sciences
and mathematics occupations in 1999, women earned approximately
12 percent less than men; in life science occupations, the difference
stood at 23 percent. Women also earned their highest and lowest
median salaries in those two occupation groups, $58,000 in computer
sciences and mathematics and $39,000 in life sciences (figure
table 3-15 ).
Representation of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
With the exception of Asian/Pacific Islanders, minorities represent
only a small proportion of scientists and engineers in the United
(Although Asian/Pacific Islanders constitute only 4 percent of the
U.S. population, they accounted for 11 percent of scientists and
engineers in 1999.) Collectively, blacks, Hispanics, and other ethnic
groups (the latter includes American Indian/Alaskan Natives) constituted
24 percent of the total U.S. population and 7 percent of the total
S&E workforce in 1999.
Blacks and Hispanics each accounted for about 3 percent of scientists
and engineers, and other ethnic groups represented less than 0.5
table 3-16 ).
Between 1993 and 1999, the portion of Asian/Pacific Islanders in
the S&E workforce increased by about 2 percentage points, whereas
the portion of blacks, Hispanics, and other ethnic groups did not
Age Distribution. As in the case of women, underrepresented
racial and ethnic minorities are much younger than non-Hispanic
whites in the same S&E occupations (figure
and this is even truer for doctorate holders in S&E occupations.
In the near future, a much greater proportion of non-Hispanic white
doctorate holders in S&E occupations will be reaching traditional
retirement ages compared with underrepresented racial and ethnic
doctorate holders. Indeed, unlike the distribution of ages of male
and female doctorate holders shown in figure
shows that the slope of the right-hand side of the age distribution
is far steeper for non-Hispanic whites. This implies a more rapid
increase in the numbers retiring or otherwise leaving S&E employment.
It should also be noted that Asian/Pacific Islander doctorate holders
in S&E occupations (measured by race and not by place of birth)
are on average the youngest racial/ethnic group.
S&E Occupation. Asian/Pacific Islander, black, and American
Indian/Alaskan Native scientists and engineers tend to work in different
fields than their white and Hispanic counterparts. Fewer Asian/Pacific
Islanders work in social sciences than in other fields. In 1999,
they constituted 4 percent of social scientists, but more than 11
percent of engineers and more than 13 percent of individuals working
in mathematics and computer sciences. More black scientists and
engineers work in social sciences and in computer sciences and mathematics
than in other fields. In 1999, blacks constituted approximately
5 percent of social scientists, 4 percent of computer scientists
and mathematicians, 3 percent of physical scientists and engineers,
and 2 percent of life scientists. Other ethnic groups (which includes
American Indian/Alaskan Natives) work predominantly in social and
life sciences, accounting for 0.4 percent of social and life scientists
and 0.3 percent or less of scientists in other fields in 1999. Hispanics
appear to have a more even representation across all fields, constituting
approximately 2.5 to 4.5 percent of scientists and engineers in
each field (appendix
table 3-13 ).
Educational Background. The educational achievement of scientists
and engineers also differs among racial and ethnic groups. A bachelor's
degree is more likely to be the highest degree achieved for black
and Hispanic scientists and engineers than for white or Asian/Pacific
Islander scientists and engineersin 1999, a bachelor's degree
was the highest degree achieved for 61 percent of black scientists
and engineers in the U.S. workforce compared with 56 percent of
all scientists and engineers (appendix
table 3-13 ).
Labor Force Participation, Employment, and Unemployment. Labor
force participation rates vary by race and ethnicity. Minority scientists
and engineers are more likely than others to be in the labor force
(either employed or seeking employment). In 1999, participation
rates in the labor force ranged between 87 and 93 percent for Asian/Pacific
Islander, black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaskan Native scientists
and engineers, compared with 86 percent for white scientists and
table 3-14 ).
Age and related retirement rates may contribute to these differences.
On average, white scientists and engineers are older than scientists
and engineers in other racial and ethnic groups: 28 percent of white
scientists and engineers were age 50 or older in 1999, compared
with 15-20 percent of Asian/Pacific Islanders, blacks, and Hispanics
For individuals in similar age groups, the labor force participation
rates of white and minority scientists and engineers are similar.
Although more minority individuals remain in the labor force, they
also are more likely to be unemployed. In 1999, the unemployment
rate of white scientists and engineers was somewhat lower than the
rate for other racial and ethnic groups. The unemployment rate for
both whites and Asian/Pacific Islanders stood at 1.5 percent, compared
with 1.8 percent for Hispanics and 2.6 percent for blacks. In 1993,
the unemployment rate for whites reached 2.4 percent, compared with
4.0 percent for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 3.5 percent for Hispanics,
and 2.7 percent for blacks (table
The differences in 1999 unemployment rates are evident within S&E
fields as well as for S&E as a whole. For example, the unemployment
rate for white engineers was 1.8 percent; for black and Asian/Pacific
Islander engineers, it was 2.3 and 1.8 percent, respectively (appendix
table 3-14 ).
Salaries. Salaries for individuals in S&E occupations
vary among the different racial and ethnic groups. In 1999, white
and Asian/Pacific Islanders in S&E occupations earned similar
median annual salaries of $61,000 and $62,000, respectively, compared
with $55,000 for Hispanics, $53,000 for blacks, and $50,000 for
other ethnic groups, including American Indian/Alaskan Natives (figure
and table 3-10 ).
These salary patterns are similar to rates recorded in 1993. However,
age, field of degree, and sector of employment all influence differences.
Across occupational fields and age categories, the median annual
salaries of individuals in S&E occupations by race and ethnicity
do not follow a consistent pattern. For example, in 1999, the median
annual salary of 2029-year-old engineers with bachelor's degrees
ranged from $35,000 for American Indian/Alaskan Natives to $46,000
for Hispanics. Among individuals between the ages of 40 and 49,
the median salary ranged from $60,000 for Asian/Pacific Islanders
and American Indian/Alaskan Natives to $70,000 for whites.
In 1999, the median annual salary of engineers with bachelor's
degrees who had received their degrees within the past 5 years reached
$45,000 for all ethnicities except individuals in the "other"
category (including American Indian/Alaskan Natives) (appendix
table 3-15 ).
Among engineers who had received their degrees 2024 years
previously, the median annual salary reached approximately $70,000
for all ethnicities. (See sidebar, "Salary Differentials")